Specialists

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Wrist Sprain

Basics

Description A wrist sprain is an injury to the bones and ligaments of the wrist that results in pain from an incomplete ligament tear. No associated long-term disability Because many serious injuries are easily confused with wrist sprains, the patient with substantial swelling or persistent pain should be suspected of having a more serious […]

Wrist Pain

Basics

Description Wrist pain, a common symptom, may be caused by different conditions, including trauma, overuse, and infection. It is important to obtain a detailed history to make the correct diagnosis and to provide appropriate treatment. The history should include onset, duration, frequency, and location of the pain. Information regarding swelling, erythema, abnormal clicks, aggravating […]

Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tear

Basics

Description The TFCC: A group of ligaments and cartilaginous structures that stabilize the distal radioulnar joint during pronation and supination of the forearm Extends from the ulnar styloid to the sigmoid notch of the distal radius Central portion: More cartilaginous than its periphery Acts as a meniscal homolog, similar to the menisci of the […]

Thumb Arthritis

Basics

Description Degenerative joint disease commonly presents in the hand and is associated with pain, swelling, loss of motion, and, later, deformity. Frequently, the thumb is the earliest site of involvement, with the CMC joint affected 1st, especially in osteoarthritis. The 1st CMC joint is considered the most important joint of the hand. Thumb arthritis, […]

Subtrochanteric Fracture

Basics Description By definition, subtrochanteric hip fractures (or, simply, subtrochanteric fractures) extend into the region between the lesser trochanter and a point 5 cm distally. Classification: Multiple systems exist, but prognostically the most critical factor is fracture stability, which is based on the degrees of comminution of the medial and posteromedial cortex. The Russell […]

Sprains

Basics Description Sprains refer to damaged ligaments, and they are the result of overstretching of the tissues. Injuries to the ligamentous structures of movable joints are among the most common complaints seen in primary care medicine, as well as in the subspecialty areas of orthopaedic surgery. Sprains can occur in any movable joint. Classification: […]

Spinal Stenosis

Basics Description Compression of neural elements secondary to osteoarthritic changes (bone spurs, hypertrophied ligamentum flavum, disc space narrowing) at intervertebral levels and facet joints Characterized by back and/or lower extremity pain, numbness, weakness, and possible bladder/bowel dysfunction. General Prevention No known preventive measures Epidemiology Symptoms develop during the 5th and 6th decades. No gender […]

Shoulder Instability

Basics Description Because of the shoulder’s extensive ROM, it is prone to instability. The term encompasses a spectrum of disorders of varying degree, direction, and cause. Instability should be distinguished from laxity. Laxity is the symmetric translation of the humeral head over the surface of the glenoid without symptoms. Instability occurs when the degree […]

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Basics Description Shoulder pain with overhead activities is a common musculoskeletal complaint. Impingement syndrome: Inflammatory condition of the soft tissues of the subacromial space Most common cause of presentation for shoulder complaints to a physician’s office (>50% of all shoulder complaints) Represents a continuum, progressing from acute bursitis, to chronic bursitis, to partial-thickness tears […]

Shin Splints

Basics Description Shin splints present with pain and discomfort in the leg from repetitive running on hard surfaces or forceful excessive use of foot plantarflexors. Synonyms: Medial tibia stress syndrome; Periostitis of the tibia; Runner’s leg Epidemiology Shin splints occur commonly in teens and young adults. Risk Factors Running or jogging, especially a recent […]