Specialists

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Puncture Wounds of the Foot

Basics Description Puncture injuries of the foot typically occur on the plantar surface of the forefoot or heel. The injuring object usually is a nail, needle, or pin, but it can be anything that punctures the soft tissue, including thorns, glass, and splinters. Classification: Early presentation: Day of injury Late presentation: At least 3-5 […]

Prepatellar Bursitis

Basics Description Prepatellar bursitis is an inflammation of the bursa in front of the patella. Bursae are located between structures to reduce friction. These sacs are lined with a membranous synovium that produces and absorbs fluid; they are subject to acute or chronic trauma or infection and to low-grade inflammatory conditions such as gout, […]

Posterior Tibial Tendon Rupture

Basics Description PTT dysfunction or rupture is the most common cause of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. A working knowledge of the anatomy and function of the PTT in the normal foot is necessary to understand the pathophysiology that results from dysfunction. Origin: Posterior aspect of the tibia, the fibula, and the interosseous membrane Course: […]

Phalanx Fracture

Basics Description A phalanx fracture is a break in 1 or more phalanges in the fingers. Finger fractures are classified by: Which phalanx is involved Location within the phalanx Pattern Complexity Open or closed Stable or unstable to motion Epidemiology Fractures of the metacarpals and the phalanges are common. Occur among all ages Common […]

Paget Disease

Basics Description First described by Sir James Paget in 1877 , Paget disease (osteitis deformans) is a bone disorder commonly seen in the geriatric population. As implied by the name osteitis deformans, the involved bone may be severely deformed and enlarged, features that suggest an inflammatory origin. A chronic and slowly progressive disease of […]

Osteosarcoma

Basics Description The most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adolescents May occur occasionally in older adults but is much less common than chondrosarcoma and MFH May occur within other lesions (secondary sarcoma) such as Paget disease, bone infarcts, and irradiated bone A highly malignant tumor with invasive local growth and […]

Osteomyelitis

Basics Description Osteomyelitis is inflammation or infection of bone. Classification is most commonly based on the timing of onset: Acute: Most often from hematogenous spread: The most common organism in neonates is Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Streptococcus or Gram-negative organisms. In older infants and children, it usually is S. aureus. Subacute: Accounts for 1/3 […]

Osteoarthritis

Basics Description The most prevalent form of arthritis May occur in virtually any joint of the body Has no cure and leads to pain and joint dysfunction The end result is loss of articular cartilage with secondary bone changes, including osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts. Classification is by single or multiple joint involvement. […]

Olecranon Fracture

Basics Description The olecranon: Is the proximal bony projection of the ulna at the elbow Articulates with the trochlea of the distal humerus to form the ulnohumeral portion of the elbow joint: This articulation is responsible for flexion and extension of the elbow joint. Is the insertion site of the triceps tendon Contraction of […]

Nonunion of Fractures

Basics Description Presence of a postfracture defect in a long bone beyond a reasonable expected healing date, or if no radiographic progression of healing is noted If internal fixation is used to stabilize a fracture, a race exists between fracture healing and hardware failure. Children, because of their active healing potential, rarely develop a […]