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Forearm Fractures in Singapore

forearm fracture

Orthopaedic surgeons refer to fractures of the forearm as those fractures that occur in the middle section (shaft) of the forearm bones. Fractures that involve the upper end of the forearm are discussed under elbow fractures. Fractures that involve the lower end are discussed under wrist fractures. The forearm has a complex anatomy to serve […]

Physical Findings of Adhesive Capsulitis

The physical examination of patients with adhesive capsulitis reveals a global reduction in range of motion with a marked decrease in glenohumeral translation also present. Examination of the opposite shoulder (if normal) is performed to identify the patient’s expected normal range of motion for comparison. Evaluation for limitation of pure glenohumeral motion (best measured in […]

Evaluation-Physical Examination

The physical examination findings of the athlete depend on the degree of nerve dysfunction and the chronicity of the injury. Athletes presenting early in the process often have an examination that is nonfocal and nonspecific. Patients with chronic problems will demonstrate wasting or atrophy of the involved muscles.

If the nerve is injured or entrapped […]

Evaluation-Physical Examination

Inspect the arm for symmetry with regard to size, color, and skin temperature. Palpation of the cervical spine, the scalenes, and the clavicle can be used to look for structural causes of TOS. A Tinel sign may be elicited over the supraclavicular fossa. A careful neurovascular examination should include strength testing of the muscles and […]

Evaluation-Physical Examination

The athlete with a burner may come off the field shaking his or her arm and hand. If significant neck pain exists, or when neurological symptoms involve two or more extremities, cervical spine precautions should be taken with the athlete until the player is cleared from having a cervical spine injury.

A typical examination of […]

Palpation of the cuboid-metatarsal V joint

The base of the fifth metatarsal bone is gripped between the thumb and index of one hand. The cuboid bone (medial to the metatarsal and distal to the already identified calcaneocuboid joint line) is gripped between the thumb and index finger of the other hand. A translation movement discloses easily the joint line between cuboid […]

Palpation of the anterior talofibular ligament

The index finger is laid on the anterior surface of the lateral malleolus. A combined plantar flexion-inversion movement of the ankle makes the lateral process of the talus more prominent. The ligament is felt as a thin, flat and horizontal structure, pressing against the palpating finger.

Palpation of soft tissues at the medial side

Medial collateral ligament

The medial collateral Hgament is a broad, flat and almost triangular band, with a large insertion on the posterosuperior aspect of the medial femoral epicondyle, dose to the insertion of the adductor magnus tendon. Its fibres run obliquely, anteriorly and inferiorly, to insert at the medial aspect of the tibia, just behind […]

Palpation of the extensor mechanism

This is performed on an extended knee.First the muscular structures are ascertained. Ask the patient to extend the slightly bent knee and resist the movement.This movement usually outlines the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and the patellar ligament. Then the patellar border with its tendinous insertions are palpated. With the hip in flexion and […]

Palpation of soft tissue

Gluteus maximus

The muscle belly of the gluteus maxim us and fat deposits are responsible for the typical shape of the buttocks. The muscle is palpable over its entire width. Extension of the thigh brings it into a contracted position. The upper border of the muscle coincides with the line connecting the upper border of […]