Specialists

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Evaluation-Physical Examination

Inspect the arm for symmetry with regard to size, color, and skin temperature. Palpation of the cervical spine, the scalenes, and the clavicle can be used to look for structural causes of TOS. A Tinel sign may be elicited over the supraclavicular fossa. A careful neurovascular examination should include strength testing of the muscles and […]

Noncatastrophic Cervical Spine Injuries

Noncatastrophic injuries include neuropraxia of the cervical root or brachial plexus (the “stinger” or “burner”), paracentral intervertebral disc herniation, stable fractures, spinal ligament injury, and intervertebral disc injury. These more common syndromes make up the majority of injuries encountered by sports medicine physicians.

Unilateral upper extremity involvement usually represents neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root […]

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Basics Description Tarsal tunnel syndrome is entrapment of the tibial nerve or its distal branches caused by compression or traction as the nerve courses through the tarsal tunnel. Anatomy : Proximal tarsal tunnel: Fibro-osseous space that contains (from anterior to posterior) the PTT, flexor digitorum longus tendon, posterior tibial artery and vein, tibial nerve, […]

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

Basics Description Cubital tunnel syndrome consists of pain and paresthesias over the medial border of the forearm and hand, as well as weakness in an ulnar nerve distribution from compression of the ulnar nerve as it passes through the cubital tunnel at the elbow. It affects the elbow, forearm, and hand in the ulnar […]

Compartment Syndrome of the Foot

Basics Description Compartment syndrome of the foot occurs when bleeding and interstitial edema in the muscle compartments of the foot cause a substantial decrease in capillary perfusion, resulting in myoneural ischemia and eventual necrosis. General Prevention Prevention of the long-term sequelae of compartment syndrome requires a high level of suspicion for the diagnosis. Epidemiology […]

Cervical Disc Herniation

Basics Description Cervical disc herniation is a condition in which retropulsion of disc material occurs, with resulting compression of the neural elements (nerve root[s] and/or spinal cord), resulting in neck pain, radiculopathy, and/or myelopathy. Classification Herniation is classified as acute or chronic. The classification of myelopathy is based on physical function. General Prevention No […]