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Articular cartilage injuries

The collagen tissue of the articular cartilage has less tensile strength in adolescents than in adults; thus children and young people can injure the articular cartilage more easily than adults as a result of sprains and direct blows. A prolonged extreme load on the knee joint, e.g. in downhill skiing or sailing, can result in […]

Patellofemoral pain syndrome

Patellofemoral disorders are a common problem in all age groups. The cause of this pain is complex and not well known. It is therefore important to make a precise diagnosis, otherwise the treatment will not be successful.

Etiology Damage to the articular surface of the patella usually occurs in individuals aged 10–25 years, and is […]

Patellar Dislocation

Basics Description Patellar dislocation usually refers to lateral displacement of the patella out of its normal alignment in the trochlear groove of the femur. The patella is held stable by ligamentous forces, muscular forces, and bony anatomy. Disruption of any of these 3 components can lead to recurrent patellar instability. Classification: Subluxation: Patella sits […]

Knee Examination in the Child

Basics Description It is important, during a knee examination, to keep in mind the child’s age and to understand the age-specific pediatric knee disorders. Congenital hyperextension or dislocation of the knee: Varies from simple hyperextension to anterior dislocation of the tibia on the femur Hyperextended knee presents at birth. A hyperextensible knee resolves spontaneously, […]