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Passive dorsiflexion

Positioning.

The ankle is in neutral position with the heel resting on the couch. The knee is slightly flexed. The examiner is distal to the foot. He places one hand at the plantar aspect of the forefoot. The other hand is at the back of the heel.

Procedure..

Move the foot in the dorsal direction, […]

Anterior drawer test in external rotation

Positioning.

The subject is positioned as for the previous test. The lower leg and foot are externally rotated as far as is comfortably possible.The examiner places both hands around the upper part of the tibia with the index fingers on the hamstring tendons and the thumbs at the anterior border of the joint .

Procedure. […]

Passive lateral rotation in prone position

The subject lies in the prone position with both knees flexed to a right angle. The examiner encircles both heels and performs a bilateral external rotation. The range of movement is assessed by the twisted position of the feet. This test may be decisive in comparing the range of external rotation.

Common pathological situations:

• […]

Resisted flexion of the knee

Positioning.

The subject lies prone with the knee in 30° of flexion. The examiner stands level with the thigh and leans over the subject. One hand is on the ilium, the other presses against the distal end of the lower leg.

Procedure.

Ask the subject to flex the knee, and resist the movement .

[…]

Resisted flexion of each finger separately

Positioning and procedure.

The subject presents his hand palm downwards. The examiner stabilizes the wrist with one hand. With the other hand he applies resistance to the distal phalanx of each finger respectively.

Common mistakes.

None.

Anatomical structures tested:

Muscle function:

• Flexor digitorum superficialis • Flexor digitorum profundus.

Common pathological situations:

• […]

Muscles controlling the fingers-Resisted extension of each finger separately

Positioning and procedure.

The subject presents his hand palm downwards. The examiner stabilizes the wrist with one hand. With the other, he applies resistance to the distal phalanx of each finger respectively.

Common mistakes.

None.

Anatomical structures tested:

Muscle function:

• Extension of the index finger:

– Extensor indicis proprius – Tendon to the index […]

Passive supination

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging and the elbow bent to 90°. The examiner stands in front of the subject. Both hands encircle the distal part of the forearm in such a way that the heel of the ipsilateral hand is placed on the dorsal aspect of the ulna and the fingers of […]

Resisted extension of the wrist

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging, the elbow extended and the wrist in neutral position (between pronation and supination,and between flexion and extension). The examiner stands level with the subject’s elbow. The contralateral arm lifts and carries the elbow and keeps it extended. The hand stabilizes the forearm. The other hand is placed […]

Resisted extension

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm alongside the body, the elbow flexed to 90° and the forearm in supination. The examiner stands level with the elbow. One hand supports the distal part of the forearm and the other hand is on top of the shoulder.

Procedure.

Resist the subject’s attempt to extend the elbow.

[…]

Passive supination

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging and the elbow bent to a right angle. The examiner stands in front of the subject. Both hands encircle the distal forearm in such a way that the heel of the ipsilateral hand is placed against the dorsal part of the ulna and the fingers of the […]