Dr. Kevin Yip

Dr Kevin Yip
Orthopaedic Surgeon
MBBS(UK), FRCS(EDIN), FAM(SING), FHKCOS(ORTHO)

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Combined plantar flexion-eversion

Significance.

This movement stretches all the medial ligaments of the ankle.

Positioning.

The heel rests on the couch, the knee is slightly Aexed and the ankle is in neutral position. The examiner is distal to the foot. His contralateral hand fixes the leg at the distal and lateral side. The ipSilateral hand encircles the […]

PASSIVE TESTS OF THE MIDTARSAL JOINTS

Remarks

• Because the middle segment of the foot consists of several bones and joints it is very difficult to assess isolated movements. Therefore the whole middle segment is considered as one integrated structure.

• Movements are possible in three directions but owing to anatomical characteristics plantar flexion is always accompanied by some adduction, […]

Valgus movement

Positioning.

The heel rests on the couch, the knee is slightly flexed and the ankle in neutral position. The examiner is distal to the foot and grasps the heel between the clasped hands. In order to avoid movements in the ankle joint the talus is stabilized between tibial and fibular malleoli. This is achieved […]

PASSIVE TESTS OF THE SUBTALAR JOINT

Varus movement

Positioning.

The heel rests on the couch with the knee slightly flexed and the ankle in neutral position. The examiner is distal to the foot and grasps the heel between the clasped hands. In order to avoid movements in the ankle joint the talus is stabilized between tibial and fibular malleoli. This is […]

Passive dorsiflexion

Positioning.

The ankle is in neutral position with the heel resting on the couch. The knee is slightly flexed. The examiner is distal to the foot. He places one hand at the plantar aspect of the forefoot. The other hand is at the back of the heel.

Procedure..

Move the foot in the dorsal direction, […]

PASSIVE TESTS OF THE ANKLE JOINT-Passive plantar flexion

Positioning.

The subject lies supine with the leg on the couch and the ankle in neutral position. The examiner is distal to the foot. One hand supports the heel, the other is at the dorsum of the foot.

Procedure.

A simultaneous movement of both hands pulls and pushes the ankle into plantar flexion.

Common […]

Posterior drawer test

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with the knee flexed to a right angle, and the heel resting on the couch. The examiner sits on the foot of the subject. The heel of one hand is placed on the tibial tuberosity and the other hand is placed at the back of the upper […]

Anterior drawer test in internal rotation

Positioning.

The subject is positioned as for the previous test. The lower leg and foot are internally rotated as far as is comfortably possible. The examiner places both hands around the upper part of the tibia with the index fingers on the hamstring tendons and the thumbs at the the anterior border of the joint.

[…]

Anterior drawer test in external rotation

Positioning.

The subject is positioned as for the previous test. The lower leg and foot are externally rotated as far as is comfortably possible.The examiner places both hands around the upper part of the tibia with the index fingers on the hamstring tendons and the thumbs at the anterior border of the joint .

Procedure. […]

Varus strain

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with the knees extended. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. The ipsilateral hand grasps the lower leg from the lateral side, just proximal to the lateral malleolus. The other hand is pronated and placed at the medial femoral condyle.

Procedure.

Lift the extended […]