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Valgus movement

Positioning.

The heel rests on the couch, the knee is slightly flexed and the ankle in neutral position. The examiner is distal to the foot and grasps the heel between the clasped hands. In order to avoid movements in the ankle joint the talus is stabilized between tibial and fibular malleoli. This is achieved […]

PASSIVE TESTS OF THE SUBTALAR JOINT

Varus movement

Positioning.

The heel rests on the couch with the knee slightly flexed and the ankle in neutral position. The examiner is distal to the foot and grasps the heel between the clasped hands. In order to avoid movements in the ankle joint the talus is stabilized between tibial and fibular malleoli. This is […]

Passive dorsiflexion

Positioning.

The ankle is in neutral position with the heel resting on the couch. The knee is slightly flexed. The examiner is distal to the foot. He places one hand at the plantar aspect of the forefoot. The other hand is at the back of the heel.

Procedure..

Move the foot in the dorsal direction, […]

Posterior drawer test

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with the knee flexed to a right angle, and the heel resting on the couch. The examiner sits on the foot of the subject. The heel of one hand is placed on the tibial tuberosity and the other hand is placed at the back of the upper […]

Anterior drawer test in external rotation

Positioning.

The subject is positioned as for the previous test. The lower leg and foot are externally rotated as far as is comfortably possible.The examiner places both hands around the upper part of the tibia with the index fingers on the hamstring tendons and the thumbs at the anterior border of the joint .

Procedure. […]

Variation of the valgus test

The test can be repeated with the knee in slight flexion (20-30°). Here the thigh rests on the couch and the lower leg hangs over the edge. Positioning of the hands is the same , as is the procedure.[n this position the cruciate ligaments no longer hold both joint surfaces in firm apposition; therefore some […]

Passive medial rotation in prone position

The subject lies in the prone position with both knees flexed to a right angle. The examiner encircles both heels and performs a bilateral medial rotation. The range of movement is assessed by the twisted position of the feet.This test compares the range of internal rotation.

Common pathological situations:

• Lateral pain usually indicates a […]

Passive lateral rotation in prone position

The subject lies in the prone position with both knees flexed to a right angle. The examiner encircles both heels and performs a bilateral external rotation. The range of movement is assessed by the twisted position of the feet. This test may be decisive in comparing the range of external rotation.

Common pathological situations:

• […]

Passive extension

Positioning..

The subject lies in the supine position with the legs extended. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. One hand grasps the lower leg at the heel, while the other carries the knee from the lateral side with the thumb on the tibial tuberosity.

Procedure. Move the leg upwards. Perform a quick and […]

SPECIFIC TESTS-Bilateral passive medial rotation in prone position

Significance

This test is very useful in detecting minor limitations.Since both hips are examined together, even the slightest limitation of medial rotation or a divergence in the end-feel can be detected.

Positioning.

The subject lies in the prone position with the knees together and flexed to 90°. The examiner stands at the foot-end of […]