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Anatomy and Pathophysiology

In the normal shoulder, the coordinated muscle tension within the rotator cuff compresses the humeral head, keeping it centered within the glenoid fossa. By coupling with the force of the deltoid, a fulcrum is created that allows strength through a wide arc of motion.

The overlying subacromial bursae reduces friction between the tendonous cuff and […]

Elbow Instability (Rupture of the Medial Collateral Ligaments)

The valgus stress overload syndrome can cause medial tension resulting in torsion of the medial (ulnar) collateral ligament (MCL). This ligament, especially its anterior band, is of great importance for elbow stability. It is composed of two parts: the origin of the anterior band is posterior to the axis of elbow rotation, while the origin […]

Acromioclavicular Joint Arthritis

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Basics Description The AC joint can become a source of pain in the shoulder, often because of degenerative osteoarthritis, posttraumatic arthritis, or distal clavicle osteolysis. Diagnosing problems of the AC joint: Best diagnosed with pain on palpation, reproduction of pain with cross-body adduction, and diagnostic injections Plain radiographs, especially the Zanca view, or […]

Achondroplasia

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Basics Description Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia. Characteristics: Patient height <4.5 feet at maturity The greatest shortening occurs in the proximal humerus and femur . Hypoplasia of the midface and frontal bossing may be present. Arthritis is rarely seen, but spinal stenosis is the most serious possible complication. Affects the skeletal […]