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Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Internal Oblique

The internal oblique is the largest muscle of the abdominal wall . The internal oblique forms the middle layer of the abdominal wall between the TrA and the external oblique. It originates from the “lateral two-thirds of the inguinal ligament, anterior two-thirds of the iliac crest, and the lateral raphe of the thoracolumbar fascia in […]

Passive extension


The subject lies prone with the hip extended. The examiner stands level with the hip. One hand is placed on the thigh, just below the gluteal fold. The other hand grasps the thigh just proximal to the patella.


Lift the knee off the couch until the movement comes to a stop. […]

Passive adduction


The subject lies in a relaxed supine position. The examiner stands at the foot-end of the couch. One hand carries the heel, the other hand lifts the extended contralateral leg to about 45° of nexion.


Move the leg into add uction under the extended contralateral leg until the pelvis starts tilting laterally.

Common […]

Passive abduction


The subject lies in the supine position,near the border of the couch, with the lower leg pendent. The examiner stands level with the subject’s hip. One hand grasps the distal thigh from the medial side. The other hand is placed on the opposite anterior superior iliac spine in order to stabilize the pelvis.

Procedure. […]

Passive external rotation


The subject lies in the supine position with the hip and knee bent to 90°. The examiner stands level with the subject’s hip. One hand supports the lower leg just above the ankle, the other hand is put at the knee and stabilizes the femur in a vertical position.


Rotate the […]

PASSIVE TESTS-Passive flexion


The subject lies relaxed in the supine position. The examiner stands level with the hip. Procedure.

Both hands lift the knee upwards towards the subject’s chest until the movement stops. Meanwhile a slight axial pressure is applied on the femur.

Common mistakes:

• Moving the thigh too much laterally towards the shoulder. • Carrying […]

Hip and pelvis

Injuries to the pelvis, hip, and thigh involve the largest soft tissue structures in the body. Such injuries can be extremely disabling and often require a substantial amount of time for rehabilitation. The whole lower extremity must be considered, along with gait analysis and posture. When rehabilitating the hip and pelvis,proprioceptive and balance activities should […]

Sacroiliac Dysfunction (Inflammation of the Sacroiliac Joint)

Inflammation of the sacroiliac joints (the joint joining the pelvis and the spine) is not uncommon as an isolated condition among athletes who pursue winter sports. It can also be part of generalized disease, such as Bechterew’s disease. In sports, sudden violent contractions of the hamstrings or abdominal muscles with severe direct load to the […]


Throwing injuries are of increasing importance in both professional and amateur sports. They affect adults and children alike. Sports prone to throwing injuries include baseball, American football, tennis and other racket sports, javelin throwing, team handball, cricket, and sports with other overhead motions such as swimming and volleyball.

Throwing mechanism

The basic principle in throwing […]

Injuries To Bone

The bones of the skeleton primarily serve three purposes. The first is to provide a rigid weightbearing structure, enabling the body to stand: this is the primary function of the pelvis, spine and lower extremities.