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Passive dorsiflexion


The ankle is in neutral position with the heel resting on the couch. The knee is slightly flexed. The examiner is distal to the foot. He places one hand at the plantar aspect of the forefoot. The other hand is at the back of the heel.


Move the foot in the dorsal direction, […]

Passive extension


Bring the subject’s wrist into maximal extension.

Common mistakes


Normal functional anatomy:

• Range: 85· • Elld-feel: rather hard • Limitiug strlfctures:

– stretching of the palmar ligaments of the carpus and of the intercarpal ligaments and capsules – contact of the proximal row of carpal bones against the radius.

Common pathological […]

Shin Splints

Basics Description Shin splints present with pain and discomfort in the leg from repetitive running on hard surfaces or forceful excessive use of foot plantarflexors. Synonyms: Medial tibia stress syndrome; Periostitis of the tibia; Runner’s leg Epidemiology Shin splints occur commonly in teens and young adults. Risk Factors Running or jogging, especially a recent […]