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Stress Fracture

Basics Description A stress (microscopic) fracture occurs when: Repetitive stresses are applied to a bone faster than it is able to remodel to withstand this challenge. As the stressing force continues, the bone gradually fatigues and eventually breaks. Remodeling occurs in response to the stress but does not happen quickly enough to prevent the […]

Posterior Tibial Tendon Rupture

Basics Description PTT dysfunction or rupture is the most common cause of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. A working knowledge of the anatomy and function of the PTT in the normal foot is necessary to understand the pathophysiology that results from dysfunction. Origin: Posterior aspect of the tibia, the fibula, and the interosseous membrane Course: […]

Patellar Dislocation

Basics Description Patellar dislocation usually refers to lateral displacement of the patella out of its normal alignment in the trochlear groove of the femur. The patella is held stable by ligamentous forces, muscular forces, and bony anatomy. Disruption of any of these 3 components can lead to recurrent patellar instability. Classification: Subluxation: Patella sits […]

Bunion/Hallux Valgus

Basics Description A bunion is an enlargement of the medial eminence of the 1st metatarsal with soft tissue and bursal swelling. Hallux valgus occurs primarily at the MTP joint and consists of lateral deviation of the great toe with medial deviation of the 1st metatarsal. Subluxation of the MTP joint often occurs. General Prevention […]

A Patient’s Guide to Congenital Flatfoot (Pes Planus) in Children

Introduction

Flatfeet (also known as pes planus) describes a condition in which the longitudinal (lengthwise) and/or medial (crosswise) arches of the foot are dropped down or flat. The entire bottom of the bare foot is in contact with the floor or ground surface during standing, walking, and other weight bearing activities. The condition is often […]