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Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc


Prolapsed intervertebral disc is the sudden or slowly progressing movement of one intervertebral disc backwards into the spinal channel. Therefore the pressure on the nerve roots can cause pain, weakness of movement, numbness or heightened sensation in the nerve root area.


In order to […]

Juvenile Kyphosis (Scheuermann’s disease)

Scheuermann’s disease is a hereditary condition which produces progressive rounding of the back (kyphosis) and can sometimes hinder sporting activity. The complaint mainly affects adolescent boys. Usually three to five thoracic vertebrae are involved, which become wedge-shaped.

Symptoms and diagnosis

– Slight fatigue in the thoracic region is present on exertion after the affected person […]

Low Back Pain (Lumbago)

Low back pain can occur in connection with most sports, and its precise cause is unknown. Acute lumbago mainly affects those aged 30–40 years.

Symptoms and diagnosis

– The symptoms often appear after lifting a heavy object or turning rapidly, but can also occur without previous exertion. – The pain is usually located in the […]

Tear of the Long Tendon of the Biceps

Tears of the long tendon of the biceps muscle are seen in gymnasts, tennis players and badminton players, wrestlers, rowers, weightlifters, and javelin throwers.

The long biceps tendon is susceptible to degenerative changes, which predispose it to rupture. The tears occur most often in athletes over the age of 40–50 years; in younger athletes this […]

Rotator Cuff Rupture


There is usually exercise-related pain and weakness of the shoulder on abduction and in overhead activities. The player may relate that ‘something snapped’ in the shoulder. In many partial ruptures, the initial symptom is secondary impingement or muscle atrophy and weakness.


The onset can be dramatic, with complete loss of abduction […]

Post-Traumatic Shoulder Stiffness


There is gradual onset of diffuse pain or ache, and stiffness in the shoulder after previous trauma or immobilisation. Physiotherapy, after manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic release, improves the condition dramatically. Secondary problems in the neck and upper back are almost inevitable and must be addressed.


This disorder has similar symptoms to frozen […]

Posterior Shoulder Dislocation


There is acute onset of localised swelling and pain over the posterior part of the shoulder, with typical deformation, after an excessive trauma. This injury is more common in epileptics and alcoholics than in athletes.


This injury accounts for fewer than 5 per cent of shoulder dislocations. It is uncommon in sport […]

Multi-Directional Instabiliy


There is sudden or gradual onset of localised pain in the shoulder, usually during overhead activity. Typically, pain occurs in specific positions or during different movements. Sometimes there is a sense of weakness or instability.


Multi-directional laxity is a hereditary condition caused by a loose shoulder joint capsule. In many sports, […]

Frozen Shoulder


There is sudden or gradual onset of localised pain and stiffness in the shoulder, often in a middle-aged athlete, with no preceding trauma.


Frozen shoulder is a capsulitis of unknown origin that makes the shoulder freeze because of a gradually shrinking capsule. The onset can be dramatic; the patient wakes up […]

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome


There is paraesthesia of the radial three and a half fingers and pain around the wrist. Often, sleep is disturbed.


These symptoms are caused by chronic compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel by a hypertrophied flexor tendon retinaculum.


There is tenderness on palpation over the carpal […]