Specialists

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Soft-Tissue Tumors

Basics Description Soft-tissue tumors may occur in any area of the skeleton and in individuals of any age. They may comprise fibrous tissue or tissue originating from muscle, fat, vessels, or nerves. Reactive lesions also cause soft-tissue tumors. Benign tumors far outnumber malignant ones. Differentiating the malignant from the benign can be difficult. Staging: […]

Septic Knee

Basics Description A septic knee is an infection of the synovial lining of the knee joint. Predisposing factors include arthritis, intravenous drug abuse and alcoholism, steroid use, and any form of immunosuppression . Epidemiology Incidence Common May occur in infants, children, adults, and the geriatric population Risk Factors Intravenous drug abuse and alcoholism Trauma, […]

Popliteal Cyst in the Child

Basics Description Popliteal cyst is a painless soft-tissue mass in the medial popliteal fossa behind the knee. Epidemiology Most common soft-tissue lesion about the knee in children Affects children 2-14 years old Incidence Incidence decreases after 9 years of age. Prevalence Twice as common in males Risk Factors Most are isolated cases. Juvenile rheumatoid […]

Popliteal Cyst in the Adult

Basics Description Popliteal cyst in an adult is a distended cyst in the posterior fossa of the knee that often is connected directly to the joint space. Synonym: Baker cyst Epidemiology Bimodal distribution: 1 subset in children, 1 in adults >55 years old: In adults, cysts usually are the result of intra-articular abnormalities. In […]

Knee Pain

Basics Description Knee pain has many causes, including pathologic processes in the knee and disorders in distant locations with referral to the knee area. Diffuse or located in a specific region A characteristic history and physical examination frequently narrow the diagnosis. Classification: Traumatic Acquired Risk Factors Athletic activity Obesity Sedentary lifestyle Etiology Traumatic injury […]

Knee Examination in the Child

Basics Description It is important, during a knee examination, to keep in mind the child’s age and to understand the age-specific pediatric knee disorders. Congenital hyperextension or dislocation of the knee: Varies from simple hyperextension to anterior dislocation of the tibia on the femur Hyperextended knee presents at birth. A hyperextensible knee resolves spontaneously, […]

Knee Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description Anatomy of the knee consists of compartments, bones, menisci, ligaments, muscles, and nerves. 3 compartments: Medial, lateral, and patellofemoral Bones: Patella: Serves as fulcrum to aid knee extension Medial and lateral menisci: Fibrocartilaginous structures in medial and lateral femorotibial compartments Aid in joint lubrication and nutrition and in load distribution across articular […]

A Patient’s Guide to Popliteal Cysts

Introduction

A popliteal cyst, also called a Baker’s cyst, is a soft, often painless bump that develops on the back of the knee. A cyst is usually nothing more than a bag of fluid. These cysts occur most often when the knee is damaged due to arthritis, gout, injury, or inflammation in the lining of […]