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Skiing injury and ACL tear

Both skiing and snowboarding can result in sports injuries, but they tend to have slightly different injury patterns. Skiers are more likely to have knee injuries (from twisting motion during falls), and snowboarders tend to have more upper body injuries (as a result of falling on an outstretched hand). There are also many injuries common […]

Lateral shearing


This test is used to detect internal derangement at the outer side of the knee.


The subject lies in the supine position,with the knee flexed to a right angle and the heel resting on the couch. The examiner sits opposite the subject at the foot-end of the couch. The heel of the […]

Posterior drawer test


The subject lies in the supine position with the knee flexed to a right angle, and the heel resting on the couch. The examiner sits on the foot of the subject. The heel of one hand is placed on the tibial tuberosity and the other hand is placed at the back of the upper […]

Variation of the valgus test

The test can be repeated with the knee in slight flexion (20-30°). Here the thigh rests on the couch and the lower leg hangs over the edge. Positioning of the hands is the same , as is the procedure.[n this position the cruciate ligaments no longer hold both joint surfaces in firm apposition; therefore some […]


The knee is the most frequently injured joint in athletics.Most injuries are due to the extreme stresses of twisting and turning activities such as those found in skiing, soccer, and American football. Medial collateral ligament and meniscal injuries are in the majority, but anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are also common and are responsible for a […]

A Patient’s Guide to Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries


The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is one of the less commonly injured ligaments of the knee. Understanding this injury and developing new treatments for it have lagged behind the other cruciate ligament in the knee, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), probably because there are far fewer PCL injuries than ACL injuries.

This guide will […]

A Patient’s Guide to Knee Anatomy


To better understand how knee problems occur, it is important to understand some of the anatomy of the knee joint and how the parts of the knee work together to maintain normal function.

First, we will define some common anatomic terms as they relate to the knee. This will make it clearer as we […]