Specialists

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Osteoarthritis

Basics Description The most prevalent form of arthritis May occur in virtually any joint of the body Has no cure and leads to pain and joint dysfunction The end result is loss of articular cartilage with secondary bone changes, including osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts. Classification is by single or multiple joint involvement. […]

Nonunion of Fractures

Basics Description Presence of a postfracture defect in a long bone beyond a reasonable expected healing date, or if no radiographic progression of healing is noted If internal fixation is used to stabilize a fracture, a race exists between fracture healing and hardware failure. Children, because of their active healing potential, rarely develop a […]

Knee Dislocation

Basics Description Dislocation of the knee is an orthopaedic emergency. The most common causes are motor vehicle accidents, followed by sports and falls from heights. Classification: Anterior Posterior Medial Lateral Rotary: Subclassified as anteromedial, anterolateral, posteromedial, posterolateral General Prevention Seat belts and airbags are the best methods of prevention. Epidemiology Incidence Rare Associated Conditions […]

Intercondylar Elbow Fracture

Basics Description Intra-articular fracture of the distal humerus, which may occur with a supracondylar fracture Biomechanically and anatomically, the distal humerus forms a triangle composed of a medial column and a lateral column that support the articular surface of the trochlea. The trochlea articulates with the ulna. The capitellum is the part of the […]

Hip Dislocation

Basics Description Dislocations and fracture-dislocations of the hip are orthopaedic emergencies. Serious, high-energy injuries in which the femoral head becomes completely dislodged from the acetabulum A thorough examination must be performed to assess for other possible injuries. Up to 50% of patients suffer other fractures at the time of injury. Associated acetabular or femoral […]

Fracture Treatment

Basics Description Fractured or broken bones are a common result of trauma. Treatment of fractures may be with or without surgery and depends on the location and severity of the fracture. Nondisplaced: 1 or both cortices may be involved, but the fracture has not moved. Nondisplaced fractures may be difficult to detect. Displaced: Displacement […]

Elbow Arthritis

Basics Description The elbow can be affected by inflammatory and noninflammatory arthropathies. Regardless of the underlying pathologic process, elbow arthritis generally presents with pain on ROM and loading of the affected joint. Epidemiology Incidence Uncommon Primary osteoarthritis accounts for 1-2% of all elbow arthritis; the remainder are inflammatory or posttraumatic. Can occur in any […]

Dislocation in the Adult

Basics Description Dislocation occurs when a force across a joint disrupts the restraining capsule, ligaments, and muscles. Dislocated joints may reduce spontaneously or remain unreduced. Dislocations can be associated with periarticular fractures, ruptured ligaments, capsular damage, and cartilage damage. The dislocation may result in stretch or injury to the arteries or nerves that cross […]

Ankle Fracture

Basics Description Fractures of the distal end of the fibula and tibia are termed ankle fractures. Usually caused by the twisting of the body around a planted foot or a misstep that results in overstressing the ankle joint Severe fractures may result in dislocation of the ankle. 2 fracture classification systems are used currently: […]

Acromioclavicular Joint Arthritis

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Basics Description The AC joint can become a source of pain in the shoulder, often because of degenerative osteoarthritis, posttraumatic arthritis, or distal clavicle osteolysis. Diagnosing problems of the AC joint: Best diagnosed with pain on palpation, reproduction of pain with cross-body adduction, and diagnostic injections Plain radiographs, especially the Zanca view, or […]