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Management-Nonoperative Management

Conservative treatment is almost always the initial management, provided that no severe vascular compromise is pres-ent. Success rates for nonoperative treatment have been reported to range from 67% to 90%. Nonoperative management includes relative rest and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications to reduce repetitive irritation and swelling around the nerve that may be causing the symptoms.

Postural […]

Injury Prevention and Education

Instruction and education of athletes, although often overlooked, remain the most crucial elements in preventing cervical spine injuries. The majority of cervical spine injuries occurring in football, as demonstrated by Torg et al.

It happen when the athlete uses an improper tackling technique with the neck in flexion during axial loading. As mentioned previously, rule […]

Low Back Pain (Lumbago)

Low back pain can occur in connection with most sports, and its precise cause is unknown. Acute lumbago mainly affects those aged 30–40 years.

Symptoms and diagnosis

– The symptoms often appear after lifting a heavy object or turning rapidly, but can also occur without previous exertion. – The pain is usually located in the […]

Multi-Directional Instabiliy


There is sudden or gradual onset of localised pain in the shoulder, usually during overhead activity. Typically, pain occurs in specific positions or during different movements. Sometimes there is a sense of weakness or instability.


Multi-directional laxity is a hereditary condition caused by a loose shoulder joint capsule. In many sports, […]

Self Diagnosis of Sports Injuries

The principles of injury management rely on the premise that we know what we are treating. Diagnosis is the key to success. We must differentiate injuries such as ‘knee sprain’, ‘muscle strain’ and ‘bruises’ from the corresponding pathoanatomical diagnoses: ‘rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament’, ‘grade II muscle rupture’ or ‘intra-muscular haematoma’. In some cases, […]

A Patient’s Guide to Rehabilitation for Arthritis


Arthritis is the most common cause of chronic disability. There is no cure for most forms of arthritis. But with some effort, you don’t need to lose all the movement in your joints. A rehabilitation program can help you maintain and even improve your joints’ strength and mobility. With some help from […]