Specialists

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Humeral Bone Deficiency

Humeral head defects are commonly present in patients with shoulder instability. The defects are usually small and carry the eponym Hill-Sachs lesion when secondary to anterior instability and reverse Hill-Sachs lesions when secondary to posterior instability.

Although quite ubiquitous in recurrent anterior shoulder instability, the management of large Hill-Sachs defects remains controversial especially in […]

Contraindications for Open Instability Surgery

In cases of concomitant severe arthritis, open instability repair may not be effective. Depending on the status of the osseous glenoid and surrounding rotator cuff, arthroplasty or arthrodesis may be better options.

Paralysis may also be associated with chronic instability and in such cases arthrodesis may be more successful in eliminating pain. Relative contraindications […]

Elastin

As its name implies, elastin provides tendons with elasticity, stretch, and recoil. When viewed with light microscopy, tendon has a crimped appearance because of the presence of elastin. The small amount of elastin in tendons allows them to undergo a small, protective amount of deformation and stretch in response to increasing loads while minimizing the […]

Nature of the Aggregate Linkage

The linkage of proteoglycan subunit, aggrecan, to hyaluronan is noncovalent, which contrasts with the covalent linkage of glycosaminoglycans to core protein in aggrecan. The aggregate linkage is facilitated and strengthened by low-molecular-weight proteins termed link proteins .

The linkage can occur without the presence of a link protein, but such proteins have been found in […]

Fibrillogenesis

The tendency of collagen molecules to form macromolecular aggregates is well-known. This tendency is common with most fibrous proteins that form filaments with helical symmetry and which occupy equivalent or quasiequivalent positions.

The exact mode in which the collagen molecules pack into microfibrils (precursors of the larger fibrils) still remains a subject for speculation. A […]

FUNCTIONAL EXAMINATION OF THE KNEE

Introduction/general remarks

The knee is the largest and most complex joint of the human body. Because it is situated at the ends of two long lever arms it is very well suited to clinical testing. Furthermore, the joint is relatively uncovered by muscles which facilitates palpation of most structures, intra-articular structures excluded.

One should warn […]

Fin kelstein’s test

Significance.

This test is meant to confirm the presence of de Quervain’s disease. It should be more painful than the ulnar deviation test.

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging, the elbow flexed to a right angle and the forearm pronated. The examiner stands next to the subject. The contralateral hand carries […]

Patients with Spinal Stenosis Can Benefit from Nerve Blocks

Despite our many advances in medicine and especially all the improved technology, we still don’t know what causes back pain for many people. And without an understanding of the cause, it is difficult to find an effective way to treat it. We do know now that some patients have back pain coming from the facet […]

Osteoarthritis

Knee pain is a common problem in Asia, especially in individuals above the age of 40. The most common cause of knee pain is degenerative osteoarthritis. Women are more prone to the disease. It is characterized by mild to debilitating pain. The treatment ranges from physiotherapy, medication, injection and surgery. Once the condition is diagnosed, […]

A Thorough Review of Cubital (Not Carpal!) Tunnel Syndrome

Of the two most common nerve entrapment conditions affecting the arm, the cubital tunnel syndrome is less well-known than the compression neuropathy known as carpal tunnel syndrome. In this article, patients, orthopedic surgeons, and physical therapists will all find valuable information on the cubital tunnel syndrome.

The authors present a detailed review of the surgery […]