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The perception of joint motion and position, or proprioception, is mediated by mechanoreceptors that transduce mechanical deformation into electric neural signals. Highly specialized nerve endings have been found in the joint capsule, GH lie, and tendon surrounding the shoulder joint.

Capsular stretch produces an afferent signal that produces an efferent signal, causing a protective muscular […]

Ankle Instability

Basics Description Recurrent ankle sprains occurring primarily from an inversion stress on a plantarflexed ankle, which lead to chronic ankle pain and instability Divided into 2 types: Functional instability: Pain causes ankle to be unstable. Feeling of ankle giving way Neuromuscular deficit True mechanical instability: Frank insufficiency of ligaments Physiologic ROM is exceeded. Positive […]