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Acute Injuries: Shoulder Fractures and Acromioclavicular and Sternoclavicular Joint Injuries

Key Points

The most common cause of a proximal humerus fracture is a fall on outstretched hands from a standing position. Another mechanism of injury is excessive rotation while the arm is abducted. Although fracture of the proximal humerus significantly limits function of the upper extremity, careful neurovas cular examination of the entire upper extremity […]

Biceps Tendinitis

Biceps tendinitis has been partitioned into primary tendinitis versus secondary tendinitis. Primary tendinitis involves inflammation of the tendon within the bicipital groove. To be considered primary, no other pathological findings (such as impingement, bony abnormalities within the groove, or biceps subluxation) should be present. It is considered an uncommon condition and should be thought of […]

Evaluation-Imaging

Several tests may be necessary to rule out other causes of shoulder pain, because isolated axillary nerve injury and quadrilateral space syndrome are rare. Plain radiographs typically are ordered, but these are useful in these cases only with a history of trauma that is consistent with a possible proximal humerus fracture, scapular neck fracture, or […]

Shoulder/Proximal Humerus Fracture

Basics Description The proximal humerus consists of the articular surface of the shoulder joint and the attachments of the rotator cuff to the greater and lesser tuberosities. Most of the blood supply to the humeral head comes from the anterior humeral circumflex branch of the axillary artery. >90% of proximal humeral fractures result from […]