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Inflammation of Muscle Attachments

The muscle attachments around the spinous processes of the thoracic and lumbar spine can become inflamed as a result of overuse. Such injuries are most common among crosscountry skiers, javelin, discus and hammer throwers, weightlifters, and players of racket sports.


The athlete experiences:

– pain during exertion; – aching after exertion; – tenderness on […]

Fracture of the Hook of the Hamate

The hook of the hamate bone projects anteriorly on the lateral side of the palm. A compression fracture of this bone is a rare injury, but it may occur in racket sports, baseball, ice hockey, and cycling if the handle of the racket, bat, club, stick or handlebar is compressed on to the hook of […]

Entrapment of the Ulnar Nerve (Ulnar Neuritis)

If the medial posterior aspect of the elbow is accidentally hit, pain can be felt radiating to the fourth and fifth fingers of the hand. The ulnar nerve runs along the medial edge of the elbow just behind the epicondyle to which the flexor muscles of the wrist are attached. In throwing or racket sports […]

Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis, Lateral Elbow Tendinosis)

Tennis is played by people of all ages, as it is a sport which in general does not produce severe medical problems. Problems do occur, however, in the elbow region. It should be remembered that only 5% of people suffering from tennis elbow relate the injury to tennis. This injury occurs in other racket sports […]

Injury of the Subscapularis Tendon

Injury of the subscapularis tendon

The subscapularis muscle (which originates on the inner surface of the scapula, runs anterior to the shoulder joint, and is inserted high into the anterior aspect of the head of the humerus) is the most important internal rotator of the upper arm. Its tendon can be affected by partial or […]


Throwing injuries are of increasing importance in both professional and amateur sports. They affect adults and children alike. Sports prone to throwing injuries include baseball, American football, tennis and other racket sports, javelin throwing, team handball, cricket, and sports with other overhead motions such as swimming and volleyball.

Throwing mechanism

The basic principle in throwing […]

Radial Tunnel Syndrome


There is gradual onset of exercise induced pain around the elbow.


This is an entrapment of the radial nerve between the supinator muscle bulks, often affecting players in racket sports and spin bowlers.


There is pain around the elbow on resisted extension of the middle finger. Tinel’s sign […]

Golfer’s Elbow


There is gradual onset of exerciseinduced pain around the medial epicondyle of the elbow that is aggravated by hyper-extension.


This is an over-use type injury of unknown aetiology, often affecting the wrist flexor muscle origins at the medial epicondyle in racket sports players, javelin throwers and cricket bowlers. Despite the name, […]

Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture


There is acute pain in the elbow and sudden weakness in elbow flexion.


This is an acute injury, where the tendon usually ruptures close to the distal insertion at the radius during an excessive elbow extension or flexion manoeuvre.


Pain and weakness is provoked by resisting elbow flexion. […]

De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis


There is localised, sometimes intense exercise-induced pain and swelling over the radial part of the wrist. This is common in racket sports.


These symptoms are caused by compression of the abductor pollucis longus and extensor pollucis brevis by swollen, inflamed or hypertrophied tendon sheaths.


There is tenderness on palpation over […]