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Evaluation-Physical Examination

The athlete with a burner may come off the field shaking his or her arm and hand. If significant neck pain exists, or when neurological symptoms involve two or more extremities, cervical spine precautions should be taken with the athlete until the player is cleared from having a cervical spine injury.

A typical examination of […]

Muscles controlling the fingers-Resisted extension of each finger separately

Positioning and procedure.

The subject presents his hand palm downwards. The examiner stabilizes the wrist with one hand. With the other, he applies resistance to the distal phalanx of each finger respectively.

Common mistakes.


Anatomical structures tested:

Muscle function:

• Extension of the index finger:

– Extensor indicis proprius – Tendon to the index […]

Resisted extension


Resist the subject’s attempt to extend the thumb Common mistakes.

Hyperextension of the first metacarpophalangeal joint takes place.

Anatomical structures tested:

Muscle function: • Extensor pollicis longus • Extensor pollicis brevis • Abductor pollic;s longus. Common pathological situations:

• Pain occurs in tendinous lesions of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis […]

Resisted extension of the wrist


The subject stands with the arm hanging, the elbow extended and the wrist in neutral position (between pronation and supination,and between flexion and extension). The examiner stands level with the subject’s elbow. The contralateral arm lifts and carries the elbow and keeps it extended. The hand stabilizes the forearm. The other hand is placed […]

Resisted extension


The subject stands with the arm alongside the body, the elbow flexed to 90° and the forearm in supination. The examiner stands level with the elbow. One hand supports the distal part of the forearm and the other hand is on top of the shoulder.


Resist the subject’s attempt to extend the elbow.


Fracture of the Lower End of the Humerus (Supracondylar Fracture)

Children often sustain fractures of the lower part of the humerus because of falls from gymnasium apparatus, and in riding or cycling falls.

Symptoms and diagnosis

– Intense pain is felt during arm movements. – There is tenderness on pressure. – Swelling and bruising are noticeable. – Contour changes.


The injured person should be […]

Radial Tunnel Syndrome


There is gradual onset of exercise induced pain around the elbow.


This is an entrapment of the radial nerve between the supinator muscle bulks, often affecting players in racket sports and spin bowlers.


There is pain around the elbow on resisted extension of the middle finger. Tinel’s sign […]

Hand Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The hand is a unique organ that allows humans to work and to create. The hand can be conveniently divided into the palmar (volar) and dorsal parts. The volar portion of the hand contains the major digital nerves, the flexor tendons, and the muscles that allow finger movement. The bony architecture is […]

Elbow Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description Bones Ulnohumeral joint: The trochlea of the humerus articulates with the trochlear notch of the proximal ulna. The olecranon process of the ulna lies posterior to the joint. Allows for elbow flexion and extension Radiohumeral joint: The capitulum of the humerus articulates with the radial head. Allows for forearm supination and pronation […]

A Patient’s Guide to Wrist Anatomy


The anatomy of the wrist joint is extremely complex, probably the most complex of all the joints in the body. The wrist is actually a collection of many bones and joints. These bones and joints let us use our hands in lots of different ways. The wrist must be extremely mobile to give our […]