Specialists

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Subtrochanteric Fracture

Basics Description By definition, subtrochanteric hip fractures (or, simply, subtrochanteric fractures) extend into the region between the lesser trochanter and a point 5 cm distally. Classification: Multiple systems exist, but prognostically the most critical factor is fracture stability, which is based on the degrees of comminution of the medial and posteromedial cortex. The Russell […]

Stress Fracture

Basics Description A stress (microscopic) fracture occurs when: Repetitive stresses are applied to a bone faster than it is able to remodel to withstand this challenge. As the stressing force continues, the bone gradually fatigues and eventually breaks. Remodeling occurs in response to the stress but does not happen quickly enough to prevent the […]

Sprains

Basics Description Sprains refer to damaged ligaments, and they are the result of overstretching of the tissues. Injuries to the ligamentous structures of movable joints are among the most common complaints seen in primary care medicine, as well as in the subspecialty areas of orthopaedic surgery. Sprains can occur in any movable joint. Classification: […]

Spondylolisthesis

Basics Description Spondylolisthesis is an abnormal AP translation of 2 vertebral bodies relative to each other. This translation is secondary to a defect in the pars interarticularis (spondylolysis) or the posterior ligamentous-bony restraints. Spondylolisthesis is classified by type (Table 1) and by the severity of the slip (Table 2). General Prevention No preventive measures […]

Spinal Stenosis

Basics Description Compression of neural elements secondary to osteoarthritic changes (bone spurs, hypertrophied ligamentum flavum, disc space narrowing) at intervertebral levels and facet joints Characterized by back and/or lower extremity pain, numbness, weakness, and possible bladder/bowel dysfunction. General Prevention No known preventive measures Epidemiology Symptoms develop during the 5th and 6th decades. No gender […]

Soft-Tissue Tumors

Basics Description Soft-tissue tumors may occur in any area of the skeleton and in individuals of any age. They may comprise fibrous tissue or tissue originating from muscle, fat, vessels, or nerves. Reactive lesions also cause soft-tissue tumors. Benign tumors far outnumber malignant ones. Differentiating the malignant from the benign can be difficult. Staging: […]

Snapping Hip

Basics Description Snapping of the hip is a sensation that is normally felt on an infrequent basis by many people. If it becomes frequent or painful, patients may seek attention and treatment. The causes may include structures outside or inside the joint. Synonyms: Popping hip; Tendinitis; Coxa saltans General Prevention Perform adequate stretching before […]

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

Basics Description SCFE is a disorder of the hips of adolescents or preadolescents in which the femoral head is displaced relative to the rest of the femur. The femoral head remains in the acetabulum. Most notable features: The outward rotation of the lower femur and leg and a limp Classification: Stable versus unstable (1): […]

Shoulder/Proximal Humerus Fracture

Basics Description The proximal humerus consists of the articular surface of the shoulder joint and the attachments of the rotator cuff to the greater and lesser tuberosities. Most of the blood supply to the humeral head comes from the anterior humeral circumflex branch of the axillary artery. >90% of proximal humeral fractures result from […]

Shoulder/Glenohumeral Arthritis

Basics Description Progressive loss of glenohumeral joint space with thinning of articular cartilage, formation of osteophytes, and progressive deformity Epidemiology Females are more likely than males to have primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Patients >60 years old are more likely to have it than are younger patients. Incidence ~0.4% in the general population Can reach 4.6% […]