Specialists

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Shoulder Dislocation

Basics Description The shoulder joint has the greatest ROM of all joints in the body and, thus, is at high risk for dislocations. Shoulder joint stability depends on various dynamic and static anatomical restraints. Dynamic restraints include: Tendon of the long head of the biceps Scapular stabilizers Rotator cuff muscles and tendons Static restraints […]

Seronegative Spondyloarthropathies

Basics Description Also called enthesopathies, these inflammatory diseases are associated with a negative rheumatoid factor or antinuclear antibody titer that affects the spine and multiple peripheral joints. Included in the seronegative spondyloarthropathies are AS, reactive arthritis (formerly known as Reiter syndrome), psoriatic arthritis, and enteropathic arthritis. Synonym: Reactive arthritis General Prevention Although the disease […]

Septic Hip

Basics Description The incidence of septic hip is increasing, especially in elderly and immunosuppressed individuals. This condition may occur in infants, children, adults, and the elderly, but it is more common in the pediatric population. Risks factors include hip surgery (most common cause), intravenous drug abuse, alcoholism, and steroid use. Epidemiology Incidence In children, […]

Septic Arthritis

Basics Description Septic arthritis is an infection of the joint. In infants, the capillaries penetrating the physeal plate into the epiphysis persist until age 18 months, so spread of infection may occur from the metaphysis indirectly to the epiphysis and then to the joint. Possible irreparable damage to growth plate occurs. Classification: Polyarticular septic […]

Scoliosis

Basics Description Scoliosis is a 3D curvature of the spine, best appreciated on an AP radiograph and physical examination. Both thoracic and lumbar segments of the spine may be affected. It is defined as a curve >10°. Classification: Etiology: Idiopathic Congenital Neuromuscular Connective tissue Degenerative Location (of the apex or middle of the curve): […]

Scaphoid Fracture

Basics Description Fracture of the most radial (thumb side) of the carpal bones, usually as a result of a dorsiflexion injury to the wrist The most common of the carpal fractures, estimated at 60% Frequent problems include delayed diagnosis and nonunion. Classification: Chronologically: Acute or chronic Anatomically: In the proximal, middle, or distal third […]

Sarcoma (Epitheloid and Synovial)

Basics Description Epithelioid sarcoma: A high-grade soft-tissue sarcoma that is prone to local recurrence, lymph node invasion, and pulmonary metastases. Most common soft-tissue sarcoma of the upper extremity Often confused with granulomatous processes Occurs often in young patients (15-40 years old) Synovial sarcoma: A high-grade malignancy on the soft tissue Occurs in para-articular regions […]

Sacral Insufficiency Fracture

Basics Description Sacral Insufficiency fractures occur in the sacral ala between the SI joints and the neural foramina (Denis Zone 1). The fracture pattern adopts a characteristic H-shape, which is pathonemonic of the condition. It is postulated that the vertical limbs of the H occur 1st, followed by the transverse fracture line. In ~50% […]

Rotator Cuff Injuries

Basics Description Comprises 4 musculotendinous structures (the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) that: Compress the humeral head into the glenoid, allowing the larger muscle groups to function properly Provide muscular balance to the glenohumeral joint Injuries to the cuff can occur at any age, but injuries to people >60 years old are likely […]

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Basics Description Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disease affecting synovial joints and extra-articular systems, including the skin, eyes, cardiovascular system, bronchopulmonary system, spleen, and nervous system. Epidemiology Incidence Affects 1% of the population Prevalence Variable onset, but most frequently between the ages of 35 and 50 years Females are affected 2-3 […]