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Forearm Fractures in Singapore

forearm fracture

Orthopaedic surgeons refer to fractures of the forearm as those fractures that occur in the middle section (shaft) of the forearm bones. Fractures that involve the upper end of the forearm are discussed under elbow fractures. Fractures that involve the lower end are discussed under wrist fractures. The forearm has a complex anatomy to serve […]

Passive extension

Procedure.

Bring the subject’s wrist into maximal extension.

Common mistakes

None.

Normal functional anatomy:

• Range: 85· • Elld-feel: rather hard • Limitiug strlfctures:

– stretching of the palmar ligaments of the carpus and of the intercarpal ligaments and capsules – contact of the proximal row of carpal bones against the radius.

Common pathological […]

Passive supination

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging and the elbow bent to 90°. The examiner stands in front of the subject. Both hands encircle the distal part of the forearm in such a way that the heel of the ipsilateral hand is placed on the dorsal aspect of the ulna and the fingers of […]

PASSIVE TESTS OF THE DISTAL RADIOULNAR JOINT

Passive pronation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging and the elbow bent to 90°. The examiner stands in front of the subject. Both hands encircle the distal part of the forearm in such a way that the heel of the contralateral hand is placed on the palmar aspect of the ulna and […]

Palpation of soft tissue

Radius and ulna can be identified. At the distal and ulnar side of the ulna a bony prominence can be felt: the pisiform bone. Put the interphalangeal joint of the thumb onto the pisiform and direct the thumb towards the base of the index finger of the subject. Flex the thumb and feel its tip […]

Wrist-RADIAL

At the distal end of the radius the styloid process can be palpated. Slightly more proximally on the radius a small groove can be found.Just distally to the styloid process the scaphoid (navicular) bone is palpable. It can be made more prominent by asking the subject to execute ulnar deviation of the wrist. When the […]

Passive supination

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging and the elbow bent to a right angle. The examiner stands in front of the subject. Both hands encircle the distal forearm in such a way that the heel of the ipsilateral hand is placed against the dorsal part of the ulna and the fingers of the […]

FUNCTIONAL EXAMINATION OF THE ELBOW

PASSIVE TESTS

Passive flexion

Positioning. The subject stands with the arm outstretched. The examiner stands level with the subject’s arm. He places one hand against the back of the shoulder and grasps the distal forearm with the other hand.

Procedure. Bring the hand towards the shoulder,thereby stabilizing the latter, until the movement comes to a […]

Malacia of the Lunate (Kienböck’s disease)

Lunatomalacia may occur as a result of repeated trauma or impacts. The circulation of the lunate is disturbed, and the bone softens and becomes devascularized. This injury is associated with a slightly shortened ulna in relation to the radius at the wrist (this is called negative variance).

Symptoms and diagnosis

– Movements are painful and […]

Fractures

Fractures of the forearm can occur after a fall or a direct blow and usually involve both the radius and the ulna. Fractures of the ulna alone can occur when parrying a blow with the forearm. A fracture of the ulna can be combined with a dislocation of its articulation at the elbow joint (Monteggia’s […]