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The initial treatment of bicipital tendinitis is conservative using the traditional methods of rest, ice, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. As symptoms improve, range of motion exercises and strengthening can be added. The actual treatment is frequently directed more toward the treatment of underlying rotator cuff pathology. Subacromial injections or bicipital sheath injections may also be […]



Trochanteric bursitis is inflammation of the bursa, a fluid-filled sac near the lateral point of the hip joint known as the greater trochanter. When this bursa becomes irritated or inflamed, it causes pain in the hip. This is a common cause of hip pain.


One of the […]

Whiplash Injury


Whiplash injury occurs when there is a sudden jolt to the head and neck for example in a car accident, which causes either a forward, backward, or sideways movement of the head that is beyond the normal range of motion.


The most common cause for whiplash is […]


The biomechanics of the ankle and foot are important for the normal function of the lower extremity. The foot is the terminal joint in the lower kinetic chain.

Range-of-motion exercises

Ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion

Sitting with your legs out straight, pull your whole foot and ankle up towards you as far as possible, keeping your knee […]



The neck should be examined very carefully by a physician before any exercise commences, because of the many sensitive structures it comtains.

Range-of-motion exercises

Before the program starts a check-up with a physical therapist or an athletic trainer is advisable. Before performing each motion, align your head so your ears are over your shoulders. […]

Anterior elbow injuries

Rupture of the distal part of the biceps tendon

The biceps tendon inserts distally into the radial tuberosity in the proximal forearm. It is responsible for flexion in the elbow and also for some supination. The tendon is susceptible to degenerative changes and ruptures occur in athletes over 35 years old. The injury mechanism is […]

Rupture of the Major Pectoral Muscle

The pectoral muscle has its origin on the anterior chest wall and its insertion on the anterior surface of the upper part of the humerus. Its function is to draw the upper arm towards the chest and to rotate the arm inwards. When it is subjected to a heavy load, the pectoral muscle can tear. […]

Tear of the Long Tendon of the Biceps

Tears of the long tendon of the biceps muscle are seen in gymnasts, tennis players and badminton players, wrestlers, rowers, weightlifters, and javelin throwers.

The long biceps tendon is susceptible to degenerative changes, which predispose it to rupture. The tears occur most often in athletes over the age of 40–50 years; in younger athletes this […]