Specialists

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Shoulder Instability

It is important to make a distinction between laxity and instability. Shoulder laxity is a translation of the humeral head on the glenoid (socket) in the absence of clinical symptoms or pathologic changes. This means that normal shoulders may be lax without being unstable. When the laxity results in clinical symptoms and is associated with […]

Etiology of Running Injuries

The etiology of running injuries is multifactorial. Factors may be extrinsic or intrinsic.

Running

Running is an effective way to exercise large muscle groups and has a documented effect in the preservation of health and in the prevention of cardiovascular problems. However, it is a potentially harmful activity, and running injuries are common—although 2–2.5 times […]

Olecranon Bursitis

SYMPTOMS

There is gradual or acute onset of localised swelling and inflammatory signs over the olecranon.

AETIOLOGY

It can occur after direct trauma and bleeding, from repetitive stress causing synovial fluid to fill the bursa, ‘student’s elbow’ or pus in the bursa from infected superficial skin wounds.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Localised tender fluctuating […]

Cartilage Injury and Loose Bodies

SYMPTOMS

There is acute or gradual onset of exercise-induced pain around the elbow with recurrent locking or pseudo-locking or extension and flexion lag.

AETIOLOGY

This is a cartilage injury in the elbow joint, which can occur by repetitive stress or direct impact, causing mechanical blocking and synovitis.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

There is diffuse tenderness on palpation […]

Prepatellar Bursitis

SYMPTOMS

There is gradual or acute onset of localised swelling and inflammatory signs over the patella.

AETIOLOGY

The bursitis can develop from a direct trauma and bleeding or from repetitive stress, when synovial fluid fills the bursa (housemaid’s knee) or when pus from infected superficial skin wounds penetrates the bursa.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

There […]

Fracture of Metatarsal Bones

SYMPTOMS

There is a sharp localised exerciseinduced pain over a metatarsal bone. Most commonly, MT IV or V are affected, often after a previous sprain or after a direct impact injury.

AETIOLOGY

The injury is either caused by direct impact, for example from football boot studs, or by excessive repetitive stress from forefoot running or […]