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Osgood Schlatters Disease

What is Osgood-Schlatter disease?

Osgood-Schlatter disease is probably the most frequent cause of knee pain in children. The condition occurs most commonly in children between the ages of 9 and 16 years but it can occur in younger children. Both boys and girls are equally vulnerable to its debilitating effects. Osgood-Schlatter disease is always characterized […]


Panjabi introduced a spinal stability system that includes passive, active, and control subsystems. The passive subsystems involve the osteoarticular and ligamentous components, which provide restraint primarily in the end range of motion. The active subsystems are of great interest in the research and clinical fields for looking at the role of muscle and fascia and […]

Palpation of soft tissue

Place the palpating finger a few centimetres distal to the anterior superior iliac spine and ask the patient to lift and abduct the extended leg.

Two structures can be felt and I or seen, one at each side of the finger, forming an inverted V (the lateral femoral triangle). The sartorius is the medial and […]

Intrinsic muscles of the hand


When the intrinsic muscles of the hand are affected,it is usually a lesion in the dorsal interossei. These muscles mainly abduct the fingers away from the middle finger.There are four dorsal interossei and three palmar ones. The latter adduct the fingers towards the middle finger. These muscles can be tested by spreading the fingers […]

Resisted flexion of each finger separately

Positioning and procedure.

The subject presents his hand palm downwards. The examiner stabilizes the wrist with one hand. With the other hand he applies resistance to the distal phalanx of each finger respectively.

Common mistakes.


Anatomical structures tested:

Muscle function:

• Flexor digitorum superficialis • Flexor digitorum profundus.

Common pathological situations:

• […]

Muscles controlling the wrist

As most muscles take their origin at the elbow and overrun it, the subject’s elbow should always be held in extension to put maximal stress on these structures. All movements are executed with the wrist held in the neutral position:

• halfway between flexion and extension • halfway between radial and ulnar deviation.

The positioning […]


Resisted flexion


The subject stands with the arm hanging, the elbow flexed to a right angle and the forearm supinated. The examiner stands level with the elbow. One hand is on the distal part of the forearm and the other hand on top of the shoulder.


Resist the subject’s attempt to flex the […]

Resisted flexion of the elbow


The subject stands with the arm alongside the body, the elbow bent to a right angle and the forearm in full supination. The examiner stands level with the subject’s hand.One hand is on top of the shoulder and the other on the distal aspect of the forearm.

Procedure. Resist the subject’s attempt to […]


The biomechanics of the ankle and foot are important for the normal function of the lower extremity. The foot is the terminal joint in the lower kinetic chain.

Range-of-motion exercises

Ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion

Sitting with your legs out straight, pull your whole foot and ankle up towards you as far as possible, keeping your knee […]


Most recent trends in knee rehabilitation emphasize immediate motion, immediate weightbearing, early closed kinetic chain exercises, strength exercises, and early return to activity. Effective rehabilitation programs require an understanding of any surgical procedures performed, the structure of the knee, and the nature of the injury.

Strengthening should include both closed and open kinetic chain exercises, […]