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SPECIFIC TESTS-Medial shearing

Significance

This test is used to detect internal derangement at the inner side of the knee. Pain on jerk is suggestive for a minor lesion at the tibial insertion of the anterior cruciate ligament.

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with the knee flexed to a right angle, and the heel resting […]

Passive lateral rotation in prone position

The subject lies in the prone position with both knees flexed to a right angle. The examiner encircles both heels and performs a bilateral external rotation. The range of movement is assessed by the twisted position of the feet. This test may be decisive in comparing the range of external rotation.

Common pathological situations:

• […]

Knee-Bony landmarks

All palpable bony parts of the knee are situated anteriorly. Palpation is performed with the subject in the supine lying position. The knee is either bent to a right angle or fully extended,depending on the palpated structure. In a flexed position of the knee, the patella can easily be outlined. In this position the large […]

Passive supination

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging and the elbow bent to a right angle. The examiner stands in front of the subject. Both hands encircle the distal forearm in such a way that the heel of the ipsilateral hand is placed against the dorsal part of the ulna and the fingers of the […]

Passive pronation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging and the elbow bent to a right angle. The examiner stands in front of the subject. Both hands encircle the distal forearm in such a way that the heel of the contralateral hand is placed against the volar part of the ulna and the fingers of the […]

Resisted flexion of the elbow

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm alongside the body, the elbow bent to a right angle and the forearm in full supination. The examiner stands level with the subject’s hand.One hand is on top of the shoulder and the other on the distal aspect of the forearm.

Procedure. Resist the subject’s attempt to […]

Resisted internal rotation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the upper arm against the body and the elbow flexed to a right angle. The forearm is held in the sagittal plane, so keeping the shoulder in a neutral position. The examiner stands level with the subject’s arm. He places one hand on the opposite shoulder and the other hand […]

Resisted external rotation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the upper arm against the body and the elbow flexed to a right angle. The forearm is held in the sagittal plane, so keeping the shoulder in a neutral position.The examiner stands level with the subject’s arm. He places one hand on the opposite shoulder and the other hand against […]

Passive tests-Passive internal rotation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the upper arm alongside the body and the elbow flexed to a right angle. The examiner stands level with the subject’s arm and stabilizes the elbow with his trunk. One hand is placed on the opposite shoulder to stabilize the shoulder girdle and trunk; the other takes hold of […]

PASSIVE TESTS-Passive external rotation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the upper arm alongside the body and the elbow flexed to a right angle. The examiner stands level with the subject’s arm and stabilizes the elbow with his trunk. One hand is placed on the contralateral shoulder to stabilize the shoulder girdle and trunk; the other takes hold of the […]