Specialists

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Lateral shearing

Significance

This test is used to detect internal derangement at the outer side of the knee.

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position,with the knee flexed to a right angle and the heel resting on the couch. The examiner sits opposite the subject at the foot-end of the couch. The heel of the […]

SPECIFIC TESTS-Medial shearing

Significance

This test is used to detect internal derangement at the inner side of the knee. Pain on jerk is suggestive for a minor lesion at the tibial insertion of the anterior cruciate ligament.

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with the knee flexed to a right angle, and the heel resting […]

Posterior drawer test

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with the knee flexed to a right angle, and the heel resting on the couch. The examiner sits on the foot of the subject. The heel of one hand is placed on the tibial tuberosity and the other hand is placed at the back of the upper […]

Anterior drawer test

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with the knee flexed to a right angle, and the heel resting on the couch. The examiner sits on the foot of the subject. One hand is on the anterior aspect of the knee: apex patellae in the palm of the hand, thenar and hypothenar making contact […]

Passive medial rotation in prone position

The subject lies in the prone position with both knees flexed to a right angle. The examiner encircles both heels and performs a bilateral medial rotation. The range of movement is assessed by the twisted position of the feet.This test compares the range of internal rotation.

Common pathological situations:

• Lateral pain usually indicates a […]

Passive lateral rotation in prone position

The subject lies in the prone position with both knees flexed to a right angle. The examiner encircles both heels and performs a bilateral external rotation. The range of movement is assessed by the twisted position of the feet. This test may be decisive in comparing the range of external rotation.

Common pathological situations:

• […]

Passive lateral rotation

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with the knee flexed to a right angle and the heel resting on the couch. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. One hand grasps the forefoot at the inner side and presses it upwards in dorsiflexion. Place the other shoulder against the knee, the arm […]

Adduction in flexion

Significance

This provocation test may be used to compress a painful structure in the groin (psoas bursa or tendon of rectus femoris). However, it should be interpreted with utmost care because other elements such as veins and lymph nodes can also be compressed. This test also stretches several posterior structures (capsule of the hip joint, […]

ISOMETRIC CONTRACTIONS

Resisted flexion

Positioning.

The subject lies in the supine position with the hip flexed to a right angle. The examiner stands level with the thigh and places one knee against the ischial tuberosity. Both hands are clasped at the anterior and distal end of the thigh.

Procedure.

Resist the subject’s attempt to flex the […]

Fin kelstein’s test

Significance.

This test is meant to confirm the presence of de Quervain’s disease. It should be more painful than the ulnar deviation test.

Positioning.

The subject stands with the arm hanging, the elbow flexed to a right angle and the forearm pronated. The examiner stands next to the subject. The contralateral hand carries […]