Featured on Channel NewsAsia

Subscapularis Deficiency

Rupture of the subscapularis after an anterior open instability repair causes significant functional disability, which may or may not be associated with recurrence of instability.

Often such tears go unrecognized when patients present postoperatively with weakness and pain but no clear evidence of recurrent instability. A high index of suspicion and a careful physical examination […]

Complications and Pitfalls-Recurrence

Recurrence is the most frequently reported complication after open and arthroscopic surgery for anterior instability. Recurrence may be secondary to new trauma or to atraumatic events.Patients with traumatic recurrence of their instability usually have better post-operative results after revision surgery than patients with atraumatic recurrence. The recurrence rate is related to the number of prior […]



Achilles tendinitis is a syndrome of irritation of the Achilles tendon in the ankle. The Achilles tendon is the large tendon in the back of the ankle that inserts into the heel bone.

When individuals overuse their Achilles tendon it becomes irritated and inflamed. This inflammation can cause pain and swelling. […]



Patellar tendinitis is a common overuse injury. It occurs when repeated stress is placed on the patellar tendon. The stress results in tiny tears in the tendon, which the body attempts to repair. However when the tears in the tendon increase faster than what the body can recover, it […]


Surgical complications related to ASAD are similar to those of other shoulder procedures. They can be separated into complications related to inaccurate or incomplete diagnosis and those related to incorrect technique.

An incomplete diagnosis can occur from failure to recognize and address coexisting pathology such as a labral tear or partial rotator cuff tear. These […]


When obtaining consent for spinal surgery, the possibilities of complications must be discussed with the athlete. Again, the details of the complications of spinal surgery could fill a book, and they are beyond the scope of this chapter.

In general, however, the possible complications include wound infections, postoperative bleeding that requires transfusion, nonunion of the […]

Spinal Stenosis

The vertebral column can be affected by stenosis (narrowing of the vertebral canal) from causes other than a slipped and protruding disk, including wear of the facet joints and osteophyte formation. This condition, which is not common, mainly affects those over 60 years old, especially middle-aged former wrestlers and weightlifters who have sustained strenuous loads […]

Muscle Ruptures

Ruptures of the back muscles occur in weightlifters; javelin and discus throwers; pole-vaulters; football, handball, basketball, and volleyball players, wrestlers and boxers; and many others. The injury usually consists of minor ruptures and is most often located in the long back extensors and the large, flat back muscles.

Symptoms – Piercing pain is felt on […]

Friction Burns

An athlete who falls during training or competition on a synthetic surface or a synthetically treated floor runs the risk of sustaining friction burns. Usually the burn affects only the outer layer of skin and in its mildest form causes only superficial redness which needs no treatment, but if contact is hard it may result […]

A Patient’s Guide to Postsurgical Infection

One of the greatest advances in surgery during the twentieth century has been in understanding how to reduce the risk of infection during and after surgery. Any surgical procedure, no matter how small, carries the risk of infection. Simple procedures, such as placing a needle into a joint to remove fluid or inject medications, have […]