Specialists

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Sprains

Basics Description Sprains refer to damaged ligaments, and they are the result of overstretching of the tissues. Injuries to the ligamentous structures of movable joints are among the most common complaints seen in primary care medicine, as well as in the subspecialty areas of orthopaedic surgery. Sprains can occur in any movable joint. Classification: […]

Shoulder Dislocation

Basics Description The shoulder joint has the greatest ROM of all joints in the body and, thus, is at high risk for dislocations. Shoulder joint stability depends on various dynamic and static anatomical restraints. Dynamic restraints include: Tendon of the long head of the biceps Scapular stabilizers Rotator cuff muscles and tendons Static restraints […]

Seronegative Spondyloarthropathies

Basics Description Also called enthesopathies, these inflammatory diseases are associated with a negative rheumatoid factor or antinuclear antibody titer that affects the spine and multiple peripheral joints. Included in the seronegative spondyloarthropathies are AS, reactive arthritis (formerly known as Reiter syndrome), psoriatic arthritis, and enteropathic arthritis. Synonym: Reactive arthritis General Prevention Although the disease […]

Septic Knee

Basics Description A septic knee is an infection of the synovial lining of the knee joint. Predisposing factors include arthritis, intravenous drug abuse and alcoholism, steroid use, and any form of immunosuppression . Epidemiology Incidence Common May occur in infants, children, adults, and the geriatric population Risk Factors Intravenous drug abuse and alcoholism Trauma, […]

Septic Arthritis

Basics Description Septic arthritis is an infection of the joint. In infants, the capillaries penetrating the physeal plate into the epiphysis persist until age 18 months, so spread of infection may occur from the metaphysis indirectly to the epiphysis and then to the joint. Possible irreparable damage to growth plate occurs. Classification: Polyarticular septic […]

Rotator Cuff Injuries

Basics Description Comprises 4 musculotendinous structures (the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) that: Compress the humeral head into the glenoid, allowing the larger muscle groups to function properly Provide muscular balance to the glenohumeral joint Injuries to the cuff can occur at any age, but injuries to people >60 years old are likely […]

Radial Head Fracture

Basics Description Radial head fractures: Occur in the proximal 2-3 cm of the radius Are intra-articular fractures (The radial head articulates with capitellum.) Classification : Type 1: Nondisplaced fractures Type 2: Partial head fractures Type 3: Complete head fractures Radial head fractures often are associated with other injuries to the elbow or the forearm. […]

Phalanx Fracture

Basics Description A phalanx fracture is a break in 1 or more phalanges in the fingers. Finger fractures are classified by: Which phalanx is involved Location within the phalanx Pattern Complexity Open or closed Stable or unstable to motion Epidemiology Fractures of the metacarpals and the phalanges are common. Occur among all ages Common […]

Olecranon Fracture

Basics Description The olecranon: Is the proximal bony projection of the ulna at the elbow Articulates with the trochlea of the distal humerus to form the ulnohumeral portion of the elbow joint: This articulation is responsible for flexion and extension of the elbow joint. Is the insertion site of the triceps tendon Contraction of […]

Meniscus Tear

Basics Description A meniscus tear is an acute or degenerative injury to the meniscal fibrocartilage of the knee. Classification: Acute tear: Longitudinal (50-90%) Radial (6%) Flap (4%) Degenerative tear: Mostly horizontal cleavage or complex tears Epidemiology Acute tears occur mainly in adolescents and young adults, and degenerative tears predominate in the 40-60-year-old population. Degenerative […]