Specialists

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Shoulder Dislocation

Basics Description The shoulder joint has the greatest ROM of all joints in the body and, thus, is at high risk for dislocations. Shoulder joint stability depends on various dynamic and static anatomical restraints. Dynamic restraints include: Tendon of the long head of the biceps Scapular stabilizers Rotator cuff muscles and tendons Static restraints […]

Seronegative Spondyloarthropathies

Basics Description Also called enthesopathies, these inflammatory diseases are associated with a negative rheumatoid factor or antinuclear antibody titer that affects the spine and multiple peripheral joints. Included in the seronegative spondyloarthropathies are AS, reactive arthritis (formerly known as Reiter syndrome), psoriatic arthritis, and enteropathic arthritis. Synonym: Reactive arthritis General Prevention Although the disease […]

Septic Arthritis

Basics Description Septic arthritis is an infection of the joint. In infants, the capillaries penetrating the physeal plate into the epiphysis persist until age 18 months, so spread of infection may occur from the metaphysis indirectly to the epiphysis and then to the joint. Possible irreparable damage to growth plate occurs. Classification: Polyarticular septic […]

Rotator Cuff Injuries

Basics Description Comprises 4 musculotendinous structures (the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) that: Compress the humeral head into the glenoid, allowing the larger muscle groups to function properly Provide muscular balance to the glenohumeral joint Injuries to the cuff can occur at any age, but injuries to people >60 years old are likely […]

Radial Head Fracture

Basics Description Radial head fractures: Occur in the proximal 2-3 cm of the radius Are intra-articular fractures (The radial head articulates with capitellum.) Classification : Type 1: Nondisplaced fractures Type 2: Partial head fractures Type 3: Complete head fractures Radial head fractures often are associated with other injuries to the elbow or the forearm. […]

Phalanx Fracture

Basics Description A phalanx fracture is a break in 1 or more phalanges in the fingers. Finger fractures are classified by: Which phalanx is involved Location within the phalanx Pattern Complexity Open or closed Stable or unstable to motion Epidemiology Fractures of the metacarpals and the phalanges are common. Occur among all ages Common […]

Olecranon Fracture

Basics Description The olecranon: Is the proximal bony projection of the ulna at the elbow Articulates with the trochlea of the distal humerus to form the ulnohumeral portion of the elbow joint: This articulation is responsible for flexion and extension of the elbow joint. Is the insertion site of the triceps tendon Contraction of […]

Little League Elbow

Basics Description Little League elbow refers to a group of injuries about the elbow that arise in children and adolescents (ages 7-15 years) from repetitive throwing or use of a racquet or bat. Younger patients (7-11 years old) in that group often have an injury of the physis, whereas older adolescents (15-19 years old) […]

Lisfranc Fracture-Dislocation

Basics Description Dislocation of the TMT joints of the foot. Can occur at any age Often accompanied by fractures around the TMT joints Classification: Type A: Total incongruity of TMT joint Type B: Partial incongruity of TMT joint complex, either medial or lateral Type C: Divergent (1st metatarsal medial, 2nd-5th lateral) Epidemiology Incidence Lisfranc […]

Knee Pain

Basics Description Knee pain has many causes, including pathologic processes in the knee and disorders in distant locations with referral to the knee area. Diffuse or located in a specific region A characteristic history and physical examination frequently narrow the diagnosis. Classification: Traumatic Acquired Risk Factors Athletic activity Obesity Sedentary lifestyle Etiology Traumatic injury […]