Specialists

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Shoulder Instability

Basics Description Because of the shoulder’s extensive ROM, it is prone to instability. The term encompasses a spectrum of disorders of varying degree, direction, and cause. Instability should be distinguished from laxity. Laxity is the symmetric translation of the humeral head over the surface of the glenoid without symptoms. Instability occurs when the degree […]

Knee Pain

Basics Description Knee pain has many causes, including pathologic processes in the knee and disorders in distant locations with referral to the knee area. Diffuse or located in a specific region A characteristic history and physical examination frequently narrow the diagnosis. Classification: Traumatic Acquired Risk Factors Athletic activity Obesity Sedentary lifestyle Etiology Traumatic injury […]

Knee Examination in the Child

Basics Description It is important, during a knee examination, to keep in mind the child’s age and to understand the age-specific pediatric knee disorders. Congenital hyperextension or dislocation of the knee: Varies from simple hyperextension to anterior dislocation of the tibia on the femur Hyperextended knee presents at birth. A hyperextensible knee resolves spontaneously, […]

Knee Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description Anatomy of the knee consists of compartments, bones, menisci, ligaments, muscles, and nerves. 3 compartments: Medial, lateral, and patellofemoral Bones: Patella: Serves as fulcrum to aid knee extension Medial and lateral menisci: Fibrocartilaginous structures in medial and lateral femorotibial compartments Aid in joint lubrication and nutrition and in load distribution across articular […]

Elbow Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description Bones Ulnohumeral joint: The trochlea of the humerus articulates with the trochlear notch of the proximal ulna. The olecranon process of the ulna lies posterior to the joint. Allows for elbow flexion and extension Radiohumeral joint: The capitulum of the humerus articulates with the radial head. Allows for forearm supination and pronation […]

Cervical Spine Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description Anatomy: The cervical spine contains 7 cervical vertebrae, from which arise 8 nerve roots. The normal cervical spine has a lordotic curvature. Intact functional cervical vertebrae are vital because they protect both the spinal cord and the vertebral artery. Of the 8 nerve roots that arise from the cervical vertebrae, all but […]

Biceps Tendon Rupture

Basics Description The biceps tendon can rupture proximally near the shoulder or distally near the elbow. Most ruptures occur proximally. Proximally, the biceps helps depress and stabilize the humeral head, whereas distally it is the primary supinator of the forearm and assists in elbow flexion. Epidemiology Incidence Typically occurs in males >40 years old […]

Ankle Instability

Basics Description Recurrent ankle sprains occurring primarily from an inversion stress on a plantarflexed ankle, which lead to chronic ankle pain and instability Divided into 2 types: Functional instability: Pain causes ankle to be unstable. Feeling of ankle giving way Neuromuscular deficit True mechanical instability: Frank insufficiency of ligaments Physiologic ROM is exceeded. Positive […]

A Patient’s Guide to Rehabilitation for Arthritis

Introduction

Arthritis is the most common cause of chronic disability. There is no cure for most forms of arthritis. But with some effort, you don’t need to lose all the movement in your joints. A rehabilitation program can help you maintain and even improve your joints’ strength and mobility. With some help from […]