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Biomechanical Factors Specific to Rotator Cuff Repair

RTC repair using an open technique has been clinically successful in terms of repair, although arthroscopic techniques are now more common. Arthroscopy for RTC repair is popular for several reasons:

(a) exploration of the joint space for degenerative disease and loose bodies;

(b) lower patient morbidity, with earlier relief of pain and return to activity; […]

Rotator Cuff Muscles

The RTC is composed of the supraspinatus, the infraspinatus, the subscapularis, and the teres minor muscles. The tendinous portion of the supraspinatus interdigitates with the subscapularis and the infraspinatus to form a common, continuous insertion on the humeral head, enveloping approximately 75% of the GH articulation and with a mean area of insertion on the […]

Long Head of the Biceps

The long head of the biceps tendon has a variable origin, with 30% to 40% originating at the supraglenoid tubercle, 45% to 60% directly from the labrum, and 25% to 30% from both. It travels obliquely within the shoulder joint, then turns sharply to exit inferiorly beneath the transverse humeral ligament along the bicipital groove. […]

Coracohumeral Ligament

The CHL originates on the dorsolateral base of the coracoid process and blends with the capsule to the greater and lesser tuberosities. The CHL is present in more than 90% of individuals, and it runs parallel to the SGHL, blending with the superior border of the SGHL inferiorly. Portions of the CHL form the tunnel […]

Glenoid Labrum

The glenoid labrum provides another static restraint to GH motion. The labrum is a fibrous ring attached to the glenoid articular surface through a fibrocartilagenous transition zone. The labrum functions as an anchor point for the GH ligaments and the biceps tendon; it also deepens the glenoid socket and enhances stability.

This wedge-shaped, fibrous structure […]


The proximal humerus is composed of the humeral head, the lesser and greater tuberosities, the bicipital groove, and the proximal humeral shaft, and it is highly variable. The anatomical neck lies at the junction of the articular surface of the head and the greater tuberosity and humeral shaft. The surgical neck lies below the greater […]