Specialists

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Scapula

The scapula is a flat, triangular-shaped bone that serves as the articulating surface for the head of the humerus as well as provides areas for 17 muscle attachments. With the arm at the side, the scapula overlaps the dorsal surfaces of the second to seventh ribs. It has three prominent projections: the spine, the coracoid […]

Palpation of the subscapularis tendon

The subscapularis muscle belly can only be reached by bringing the hand in between the scapula and the thorax. It cannot really be palpated. The tendinous insertion on the lesser tuberosity, however, can easily be palpated. The subject is in a half lying position on a couch, the upper arm along the body and the […]

Palpation of soft tissue

Palpation of the deltoid muscle The deltoid muscle is easy to recognize. It forms the most important muscular mass of the shoulder and is responsible for its round look.The anterior portion overlies the anterior border of the acromion and the lesser tuberosity. The middle portion lies over the lateral border of the acramion and the […]

Subacromial Bursitis

One large bursa in the shoulder is located between the supraspinatus muscle and the deltoid muscle and acromion process of the scapula. In its inflamed state the bursa is about the size of a golf ball. Inflammation of the bursa (subacromial bursitis) commonly occurs.

Causes

– A fall or blow to the shoulder or a […]

Impingement Syndrome

Impingement can be defined as a trapping of the soft tissues in the subacromial space, between the acromion and the humeral head. The entrapment of the soft tissues when moving the shoulder may lead to a painful reaction. Athletes, including tennis players, swimmers, throwers, and weightlifters, who make repetitive movements of the arms above the […]

A Patient’s Guide to Shoulder Instability

Introduction

Shoulder instability means that the shoulder joint is too loose and is able to slide around too much in the socket. In some cases, the unstable shoulder actually slips out of the socket. If the shoulder slips completely out of the socket, it has become dislocated. If not treated, instability can lead to arthritis […]

A Patient’s Guide to Osteoarthritis of the Acromioclavicular Joint

Introduction

Some joints in the body are more likely to develop problems from normal wear and tear. Degeneration causes the cartilage that cushions the joint to wear out. This type of arthritis is called osteoarthritis. Doctors sometimes refer to this type of arthritis as arthrosis.

The acromioclavicular (AC) joint in the shoulder is a common […]

A Patient’s Guide to Labral Tears

Introduction

Since orthopedic surgeons began using a tiny TV camera called an arthroscope to diagnose and treat shoulder problems, they have discovered several conditions that no one knew existed. One of these conditions is an injury to a small structure in the shoulder called the labrum. A labral tear can cause pain and a catching […]

A Patient’s Guide to Impingement Syndrome

Introduction

The shoulder is a very complex piece of machinery. Its elegant design gives the shoulder joint great range of motion, but not much stability. As long as all the parts are in good working order, the shoulder can move freely and painlessly.

Many people refer to any pain in the shoulder as bursitis. The […]

A Patient’s Guide to Biceps Tendonitis

Introduction

Biceps tendonitis, also called bicipital tendonitis, is inflammation in the main tendon that attaches the top of the biceps muscle to the shoulder. The most common cause is overuse from certain types of work or sports activities. Biceps tendonitis may develop gradually from the effects of wear and tear, or it can happen suddenly […]