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When obtaining consent for spinal surgery, the possibilities of complications must be discussed with the athlete. Again, the details of the complications of spinal surgery could fill a book, and they are beyond the scope of this chapter.

In general, however, the possible complications include wound infections, postoperative bleeding that requires transfusion, nonunion of the […]

Muscle Ruptures

Muscle fibers respond and adapt quickly to change. Damaged muscle can heal quickly with fibers regenerated in about 3 weeks. When injury occurs, however, there is almost inevitably some degree of bleeding, and this can affect the healing process mechanically by reducing contact between the ruptured ends of the muscle fibers. If bleeding can be […]

Platelet Rich Plasma Injection Grafts for Musculoskeletal Injuries: A Review


In Europe and the United States, there is an increasing prevalence of the use of autologous blood products to facilitate healing in a variety of applications. Recently, we have learned more about specific growth factors, which play a crucial role in the healing process. With that knowledge there is abundant enthusiasm in the application […]