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Leg Length Discrepancy

Leg Length Discrepancy

Leg Length Discrepancy

What is leg length discrepancy?

Leg length discrepancy is an orthopaedic problem that usually appears in childhood, in which one’s two legs are of unequal lengths. Often abbreviated as ‘LLD,’ leg length discrepancy may be caused by or associated with a number of other orthopaedic or medical conditions, but is […]

A Patient’s Guide to Adult Degenerative Scoliosis

X-Ray Lumbar Scoliosis

adult scoliosis


A normal healthy spine will be straight when seen from the front or the back. When seen from the side, the normal spine forms a gentle “S” curve.

Scoliosis is an abnormal or exaggerated curve of the spine from the side or from the front or back. Adult degenerative scoliosis […]

Children’s Orthopedic Surgeons Surveyed About Treatment for Early Scoliosis

When it comes to scoliosis in very young children, things are changing in the world of pediatric orthopedics. The traditional treatment with spinal fusion, casting, and bracing is being replaced by growing rods and devices that help the chest wall expand with good spinal alignment.

Those are the main points taken from an on-line survey […]



Trochanteric bursitis is inflammation of the bursa, a fluid-filled sac near the lateral point of the hip joint known as the greater trochanter. When this bursa becomes irritated or inflamed, it causes pain in the hip. This is a common cause of hip pain.


One of the […]



Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person’s spine is curved from side to side, shaped like an “s” or “c”, and the spine may also be rotated.


A rib “hump” or a prominent shoulder blade caused by rotation of the ribcage in thoracic scoliosis can be […]


In scoliosis, lateral curvature to the left or right of part of the spine renders the vertebral column S-shaped. The cause of this complaint, which affects growing children, is unknown. It is often discovered by the physical education teacher, coach, or parents, and should lead to a visit to the doctor.

Scoliosis occurs in about […]

Spina Bifida

Basics Description Incomplete closure of the laminar arches of the spine Occurs at birth but may not be detected until later An unrelated variety, spina bifida occulta, is a small defect in the 5th lumbar or 1st sacral arches, a benign finding of no clinical consequence. May be a clinically significant problem if it […]

Short Stature

Basics Description Short stature is defined as height under the 3rd percentile for age of the general population. Many causes for short stature exist; orthopaedic causes are addressed here. Most common cause overall is familial or constitutional short stature The most common orthopaedic cause is osteochondrodysplasia, a group of skeletal disorders (>600 types) characterized […]


Basics Description Scoliosis is a 3D curvature of the spine, best appreciated on an AP radiograph and physical examination. Both thoracic and lumbar segments of the spine may be affected. It is defined as a curve >10°. Classification: Etiology: Idiopathic Congenital Neuromuscular Connective tissue Degenerative Location (of the apex or middle of the curve): […]


Basics Description Sciatica is pain referred down the leg in a distribution of the sciatic nerve, which courses from the lumbosacral plexus L2, S3. 5 different areas of pain may be noted: Back: Midline lumbosacral, radicular radiation pattern Buttocks: Deep-seated, crampy pain Posterior or lateral thigh (L5, S1) On occasion, both posterior and lateral […]