Specialists

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Evaluation-Physical Examination

Inspect the arm for symmetry with regard to size, color, and skin temperature. Palpation of the cervical spine, the scalenes, and the clavicle can be used to look for structural causes of TOS. A Tinel sign may be elicited over the supraclavicular fossa. A careful neurovascular examination should include strength testing of the muscles and […]

Evaluation-Physical Examination

The athlete with a burner may come off the field shaking his or her arm and hand. If significant neck pain exists, or when neurological symptoms involve two or more extremities, cervical spine precautions should be taken with the athlete until the player is cleared from having a cervical spine injury.

A typical examination of […]

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Basics Description Tarsal tunnel syndrome is entrapment of the tibial nerve or its distal branches caused by compression or traction as the nerve courses through the tarsal tunnel. Anatomy : Proximal tarsal tunnel: Fibro-osseous space that contains (from anterior to posterior) the PTT, flexor digitorum longus tendon, posterior tibial artery and vein, tibial nerve, […]

Heel Pain (Plantar Fasciitis)

Basics Description Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of plantar heel pain. Other causes include: Compression of the 1st branch of the LPN Fat pad atrophy of the heel Pain and enthesopathy associated with seronegative spondyloarthropathies Tarsal tunnel syndrome Calcaneal stress fracture Geriatric Considerations Plantar heel pain in geriatric patients often is secondary […]

Hand Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The hand is a unique organ that allows humans to work and to create. The hand can be conveniently divided into the palmar (volar) and dorsal parts. The volar portion of the hand contains the major digital nerves, the flexor tendons, and the muscles that allow finger movement. The bony architecture is […]

Elbow Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description Bones Ulnohumeral joint: The trochlea of the humerus articulates with the trochlear notch of the proximal ulna. The olecranon process of the ulna lies posterior to the joint. Allows for elbow flexion and extension Radiohumeral joint: The capitulum of the humerus articulates with the radial head. Allows for forearm supination and pronation […]

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

Basics Description Cubital tunnel syndrome consists of pain and paresthesias over the medial border of the forearm and hand, as well as weakness in an ulnar nerve distribution from compression of the ulnar nerve as it passes through the cubital tunnel at the elbow. It affects the elbow, forearm, and hand in the ulnar […]