Specialists

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Baseball Mallet Finger

SYMPTOMS

There is localised pain and swelling around the distal inter-phalangeal (DIP) joint, which is difficult or impossible to extend fully. In chronic cases, pain and swelling may be absent but the inability to extend the distal phalanx remains.

AETIOLOGY

This injury is a rupture of the most distal insertion of the extensor digitorum […]

Tibial Spine Avulsion Fracture

SYMPTOMS

This injury is caused by a sprain and prevents continuation of sport in a young growing athlete usually below or just above 15 years of age. The symptoms are immediate haemarthrosis, which is caused by bleeding from the bone, and pain. This is an injury that is not uncommon in contact sports such […]

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear (PCL)

SYMPTOMS

Immediate haemarthrosis and pain in the knee after a sudden hyper-flexion or hyperextension sprain or direct tackle. It is common in contact sports such as football and rugby and other high-intensity sports.

AETIOLOGY

The typical athlete suffers a hyperextension or valgus rotation sprain during sport or after a direct impact to the […]

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)

SYMPTOMS

The symptoms are immediate haemarthrosis and pain in the medial part of the knee. If only the external portion is ruptured there will be superficial bruising rather than haemarthrosis. This is an injury common in contact sports such as football, rugby and other high-intensity sports. The MCL ruptures during an excessive valgus sprain and […]

Lateral Collateral Ligament Tear (LCL)

SYMPTOMS

The symptoms are immediate haemarthrosis and pain in the lateral part of the knee. This injury is common in contact sports such as football, rugby and other high-intensity sports. LCL ruptures occur during a varus sprain and cause an inability to continue sport. The forces involved are high; since the lateral knee structures are […]

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear (ACL)

SYMPTOMS

The symptoms are pain and immediate haemarthrosis, caused by bleeding from the ruptured ligament. This is an injury common in contact sports such as football, rugby and other high intensity sports such as downhill skiing. There is often a ‘pop’ sound from the knee and an inability to continue.

AETIOLOGY

The typical athlete suffers […]

Posterior Inpingement of the Ankle

SYMPTOMS

There is a gradually increasing stiffness of the ankle and exercise-induced pain around the posterior part of the ankle joint, sometimes after previous sprain. This injury often affects footballers and ballet dancers.

AETIOLOGY

Impingement syndrome is not a diagnosis but a symptom and may be caused by repetitive injury to the posterior ankle […]

Turf Toe

SYMPTOMS

There is a gradually increasing stiffness and diffuse aching pain around MTP I. Commonly affects team sports players who wear studded shoes.

AETIOLOGY

Common theories include repetitive minor trauma to the capsule and cartilage of MTP I from ill-fitting shoes, direct impact and playing on hard turf with shoes that get stuck. […]

Sesam Bone Stress Fractures

SYMPTOMS

There is gradually increasing exerciseinduced pain and swelling around and below MTP I or diffuse pain in the forefoot on forefoot landings and running.

AETIOLOGY

This injury is usually caused by excessive direct impact from landing on the forefoot on hard surfaces.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

There is distinct tenderness on palpation over the medial or […]

Self Diagnosis of Sports Injuries

The principles of injury management rely on the premise that we know what we are treating. Diagnosis is the key to success. We must differentiate injuries such as ‘knee sprain’, ‘muscle strain’ and ‘bruises’ from the corresponding pathoanatomical diagnoses: ‘rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament’, ‘grade II muscle rupture’ or ‘intra-muscular haematoma’. In some cases, […]