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Laceration Wounds & Cuts

Laceration Wound

Laceration Wound

What is a Laceration Wound?

A laceration is a wound that occurs when skin, tissue, and/or muscle is torn or cut open. Lacerations may be deep or shallow, long or short, and wide or narrow. Most lacerations are the result of the skin hitting an object, or an object hitting the […]

Pectoralis Major Tendon Ruptures

Key Points

The pectoralis major muscle demonstrates two distinctively different parts—the clavicular head and the sternal head. The clavicular head arises from the medial clavicle and upper sternum. It is supplied by the pectoral nerve off of the lateral cord and the deltoid branch of the thoraco-acromial artery. The sternal head arises from the sternum, […]

Treatment Alternatives

In the past, the most common treatment for many if not most of the articular cartilage lesions that were seen in the shoulder (and other joints) was simple debridement and symptomatic management. Today’s aim, however, is to restore durable hyaline cartilage through a practical and minimally invasive approach (preferably arthroscopic), that is associated with minimal […]

The Bio-Tenodesis Screw System

We perform all arthroscopic shoulder procedures in the lateral decubitis position under general anesthesia. Five to 10 pounds of balanced suspension are used with the arm in 20 degrees to 30 degrees of abduction and 20 degrees of forward flexion (Star Sleeve Traction System, Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL). Diagnostic glenohumeral arthroscopy is performed through a […]

Biceps Instability

Biceps instability takes the form of either frank dislocation or more subtle subluxation. As noted previously, the primary restraining structures holding the LHB in the bicipital groove are the medial sling and subscapularis tendon. Habermayer and Walch divided LHB dislocations into extra-articular or intra-articular. The much less common extra-articular dislocations dislodge from the bicipital groove […]

Myotendinous Injury and Repair

The majority of skeletal muscle injuries that occur in sports are the result of indirect strain or direct blunt force trauma. Other forms of muscular injury, such as lacerations, ischemia, and infections, are not commonly seen in athletics.

The amount of research in the area of muscle injury and repair is growing, but we do […]

Myotendinous Junction

The myotendinous junction is the interface between muscle and tendon, and it allows the force generated by muscle contraction to be exerted on the skeleton to enact limb locomotion. To maximize the junctional surface area, a region of highly folded membranes in a fingerlike arrangement exists.

This increases the surface area between the muscle and […]

Muscle Twitch and Tetanus

The molecular events during the process of muscle contraction just described can now be considered in more detail (i.e., at the level of the entire muscle). In response to a single stimulus of adequate strength, a momentary rise in tension known as a twitch is produced. A muscle twitch has three phases.

The latent period […]

Structural Proteins of Muscle

Myosin, actin, tropomyosin, and troponin are the four major structural proteins that make up muscle. These proteins form the foundation of the basic contractile unit known as the sarcomere. The banding pattern seen in striated skeletal muscle comes from the repeating arrangement of two myofibrillar filaments, thick filaments and thin filaments.

Thick filaments are composed […]

Skeletal Muscle Cytology

Each muscle fiber is surrounded by its plasma membrane, or sarcolemma. Within this sarcolemma lie quiescent satellite cells that are essential for the repair of muscle after injury.

Following muscle injury, inflammatory substances are thought to stimulate these satellite cells to undergo proliferation and differentiation into new muscle fibers.

Fibers are further divided into smaller […]