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Passive extension


Bring the subject’s wrist into maximal extension.

Common mistakes


Normal functional anatomy:

• Range: 85·
• Elld-feel: rather hard
• Limitiug strlfctures:

– stretching of the palmar ligaments of the carpus and of the intercarpal ligaments and capsules
– contact of the proximal row of carpal bones against the radius.

Common pathological situations:

• Pain at full range and felt at the dorsal aspect may suggest a periostitis of the distal epiphysis of the radius or a dorsal ganglion.Palmar pain may be provoked in a lesion of the palmar ligament of the wrist or of one of the flexor tendons.
• Painful limitation is present in arthritis, carpal subluxation – usually of the capitate boneand aseptic necrosis, usually of the lunate bone.
• Painless limitation is typical for arthrosis.

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